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The part which is contained in the tinguished member of the Church appendix we are about to lay be- of England. We give him great fore our readers-about one half credit for his frankness and canin our present number; and the re- dour in this particular; and would mainder, we hope, in our next. take the opportunity to recomWe believe that the republication mend to other Episcopalians, not of this portion of a Review, too to revile Calvin for the death of extended to be inserted at large, Servétus; not, at least, without will fill this department of our stating, at the same time, that work, for two months, as much to “Cranmer, in England, went far the edification of our readers as greater lengths in this false road any original articles that we might than Calvin." put in its place. It contains an We shall make no farther reaccount of the rise and progress marks on what we publish from of the Protestant Reformation in the Observer, in our present numGeneva, and a summary view of ber; although there are a few the life and character of Calvin. points, in which we think he is It vindicates that great Reformer not exactly accurate-As a whole, from the aspersions which, for cen- we much admire his fairness and turies, have been cast on his cha- candour; his extracts from the hisracter; and to us, we confess, the tory are excellent and highly inreading of it has been peculiarly teresting. But if spared to the gratifying, because it remarkably coming month, we shall contest corresponds with what was written some of the Observer's assertions, by us for the American edition of in regard to the doctrines of CalRees's Cyclopedia-See the article vin; and if we are not greatly in Calvin. But we are classed, and error, shall show that he is so, in very justly, with Calvinists; and at least one point of no inferior may be supposed partial to the importance. founder of the sect. This is not admitted by the Christian Ob.

REVIEW OF SCOTT'S THIRD VOLUME. server to be his characteristick. On the contrary, he says express

We now turn with eagerness to ly, speaking of the Reformers, the second division of this volume: “ We are partisans of none of we say with eagerness, because them; and least of all of the dis- we cannot but hail the appearance tinguished person [Calvin] whom of an impartial history of one of Mr. Scott presents to our view.” the greatest and most calumniated His favourable account of Calvin, names of the Reformed churches. therefore, and the representation While we admire the grace of God he gives of the conduct of the Re- in many of the leaders of the Reformer in regard to Servetus, can- formation, we are partizans of none not be supposed to proceed from of them, and least of all of the dispartial feelings. We acknowledge tinguished person whom Mr. Scott we were surprised to find the Epis- presents to our notice. As Chriscopal Reviewer, when speaking tians and Protestants, our code of of the trial and death of Serve- faith is in the Bible, and not in any tus, saying without reserve, that human interpretation of it, how“ Cranmer, in England, went far ever in the main sound and excelgreater lengths in this false road lent. On what is termed the Calthan Calvin” We were surprised, vinistic controversy, we have selnot because this assertion is not dom touched but as moderators strictly true, or that we were ig- between good men, who, holding norant of the fact, but at finding different opinions on "it, have not the statement coming from a dis- been always sufficiently ready to


weigh with calmness each other's that the time when he appeared, conscientious difficulties. We have the strong and commanding cast ever considered the grand vital of his talents—the depth of his truths of the gospel in the fall of personal piety—his undaunted couman, and his destitution of every rage--the large furniture of learnthing spiritually good-in the me-- ing with which he was stored-his ritorious cross of our Divine Lord, unwearied diligence and ceaseless and justification through faith only promptitude in difficulties--his rein his obedience unto death-in the markable faculty as a preacherregenerating and sanctifying ope- the amazing extent of his correration of the Holy Ghost, and the spondence—his surpassing merit fruits of faith and love, of holy as a commentator on the Scriptempers, words, and works—and tures his firmness and tact as a in the ascription of our salvation, leader in the free state where his from first to last, to the merciful influence was so predominantwill of God our Heavenly Father, the very position of that small reand not to our own works or de- publick on the borders of France servings-as independent of the and at the entrance on Italy--the particular manner in which the refuge which it afforded to the perdepths of the Divine councils may secuted Protestants in that divi. appear to different minds to be sion of Europe~the systematick most scripturally explained. We form which he gave to the newly enter, therefore, on the division asserted theology of Luther and before us with unbiassed judg- Zuingle, and his noble defence of ment; and shall proceed to invite that general scheme of doctrine, the attention of our readers to the which identified it with the Reforstate of țhe Reformation in Ge- mation' itself, as opposed to the neva, when Calvin'appeared--to mass of superstition, ignorance, some of the chief circumstances and false worship maintained by of his life-to the case of Serve- the Church and Bishop of Rome; tus, which is generally considered these things account for the eleva-, as pressing most painfully on his tion to which he has been raised, memory-and to the instructive and account also for the eager con-. and interesting account of his troversy which has since disputed closing days. Some reflections on many of his positions and docparticular points of his theology trines. As respects

own will naturally follow; the whole be- church, the controversy became ing intermingled with such naturalized among us by the intermarks on our author's execution course of the Reformers with each of these several branches of his other; the importation of some of labour as may occur to us.

the continental ones to our own But we must first offer a single shores, and the residence of some observation on the preliminary in- of our own on the continent during quiry, how it has come to pass the Marian troubles; and in parthat so much interest should have ticular by the correspondence attached itself to the name of Cal- which some of our most eminent vin: how it has occurred that, af- ecclesiastics held with Calvin himter nearly three centuries, we seem self, and the deference which they in all the asperity of a recent con- ever paid to his brotherly suggestroversy respecting him: how his tions. All this will, we hope, bename, and theology, and history come more apparent as

we prohave acquired such an intense at- ceed with our remarks, in the ortraction and been the centre of der which we have suggested. such eager dispute.

We commence with the date of The truth we conceive to be, the Reformation in Geneva, when



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Calvin entered on his labours in overcome her fears, and she resolved for that city. It is frequently asserted

once to visit his preaching-room-using

the precaution to fortify herself by every that he was the Reformer of Ge

preservative against enchantment, such as neva; and in popular language this

ihe Agnus Dei, relics, crossings, and the is true. But Mr. Scott proves that like. Thus protected she entered the four years before Calvin came room, and placing herself in front of the there, or ever thought of making preacher, repeatedly traced upon her per

son the sign of the cross, and ardently it the place of his residence, the commended herself to God and to the blessed truths of the gospel had care of the saints. On listening to Frobegun to make their way in that ment, her first feeling was that of surcity. The twenty-second chapter prise at hearing nothing which savoured

of incantation. By the time his discourse of this volume, which gives an was ended, her courage was so much inaccount of the establishment of the creased that she ventured to speak to him, Reformation there, from the ten- and to ask if he was satisfied of the truth dencies towards that event in 1526, that he was ready to maintain it. She

of what he had delivered? He replied to its final triumph and legal re

asked, Could he prove it from the gospel ? cognition in 1535, which latter date On his answering in the affirmative, she was itself a full year before Calvin further inquired, with respect to the mass, arrived, is a most interesting and Was it not founded in Scripture? He as

sured her that neither the name nor the affecting narrative. Here we meet

thing was to be found in the New Testaagain with Farel. The year 1532

ment. She inquired, Was that book from was the era of the effectual intro- which he had taken his text the New Tes. duction of the gospel, chiefly by tament? and, being told that it was, she means of that remarkable man, it. The loan of the book being granted,

begged that he would permit her to read assisted by Froment, Bouquet, she shut herself up in her chamber, and, Olivetan, and Viret. Again and scarcely allowing herself time to také again was he banished from the refreshment, did nothing for some days place; but he returned as facilities -but' read the sacred volume. The more

she read, the more were her admiration were presented, or urged others to

and the ardour of her soul excited. She do So,

and in the interval kept alive wept abundantly: she prayed: she discoby his correspondence the sacred vered her errors, and renounced her superDause.

stitions. At the end of three days she As an illustration of the scenes

sent for Froment to her house; she conin which the early annals of the heard him preach, she avowed her recep.

ferred with him; and, after having again Reformation abound, we will cite tion of the evangelical doctrine, blessing one example of conversion under God most earnestly for having thus enFroment, whom Farel had induced lightened her with the knowledge of his to go to Ġenevą as a schoolmaster, her husband, who had been no less bigot

truth. Nor was this all: she gained over and who soon drew around him a

ed than herself, and others of her relaconsiderable number of hearers of tions; and abounded in all the offices of all ages and of either sex.

Christian charity and kindness to those " One instance of remarkable conver

who suffered for their religion's sake.”sion, by the joint means of the preaching of Froment and the

reading of the Scriptures, is recorded. The priests had spread The tyranny and ambition of the

One step succeeded another. among the ignorant and superstitious people the idea that the teachers of the new popish bishop of Geneva--the indoctrines were no other than magicians, famous vices of many of the priests who had hosts of evil spirits at their com- --the treachery of the duke of mand to accomplish their purposes. This notion had taken full possession of the Savoy-and the opposite councils mind, among others, of a Genevese lady of the cantons of Berne and Friof the name of Glaudine; so that, regard- burg, all contributed to the result; ing Froment as an arch-sorcerer, she re- but the main instruments were the sisted all the sòlicitations of those who Bible translated and circulated, would have had her go to hear him. At length, however, she suffered her curiosi. and the great truths of that inty and the solicitations of her friends to spired volume, proclaimed and

pp. 270-272.

preached with fidelity and zeal by Council the next year, from which Farel and his brethren. It is cu- we must give the following abrious to observe the instinctive stract, that it may be seen what horror of the Scriptures which foundations the Reformers unithe partizans of Popery betrayed. formly laid. The first French version of the New Testament appeared at Ge- ticles. In article 3, the law of God is as

" It was comprised in twenty-one arneva in 1533, and was allowed by serted to be the only rule of life, and exthe council, who also ordered that clusively to have authority over the con“only the gospel should be preach- science and the Ten Commandments ed, and nothing delivered from the Man is acknowledged to be by nature

are given as a summary of it. Art. 4. pulpit which could not be proved blinded in his understanding, and full of from Scripture.” A mandate from corruption and perverseness of heart : so the bishop was then issued,

that of himself he has no power to attain

the true knowledge of God, or to give “Which he desired to have published himself to good works : but on the contrawith the sound of the trumpet, prohibit ry, if left to himself, he can only continue ing the reading of the Scriptures in the in ignorance, and be abandoned to all inivulgar tongue.' It was followed the be- quity.' Hence, Art. 5, he can in him. ginning of the next year by one from his self expect nothing but the wrath and grand vicar, commanding all persons who curse of God, and must seek out of him. possessed copies of the Bible, either in self (in another) for salvation-namely, the French or the German tongue, 'to (Art. 6, 7) in Christ. Art. 8: By the burn them immediately, under pain of ex- Spirit of Christ we are regenerated to a communication.' But it was now too late new and spiritual nature : that is, the evil to issue such injunctions at Geneva: and concupiscences of our flesh are mortified the impious order only produced effects by his grace, so that they no more reign the reverse of those which were intended. in us; and on the contrary our will is But well may the historian (Ruchat) de- rendered conformable to that of God, to mand, Was ever such a proceeding heard follow his way, and seek those things of among the followers of Mohammed or which are pleasing to him.' Art. 9: This Zoroaster, or under any other profession regeneration is (only) so far effected, that, of religion? It has been reserved exclu- even till we are delivered from this mortal sively for men calling themselves Chris- body, there remain always in us great im. tian priests, but who are assuredly wolves perfection and infirmity : so that we are in.sheep's clothing, to command the books ever poor and miserable sinners before which they themselves acknowledge as God.... We have, therefore, always need of sacred-God's merciful gift to mankind the mercy of God for the remission of to teach them the way to eternal life-to our faults and offences; and must conbe committed to the flames. Yet such stantly seek our righteousness in Christ, atrocities have been renewed in our own and not in ourselves, and repose and as: days. [Mr. Scott says in a note,' and sure ourselves in hirn, attributing nothing we may add, in our's also.'] Infidels will to our own works.' Art. 10: And to surely rise up in the judgment against the end that all the glory and praise may such Christians, and will condemn them.(as they are due) be given to God, and

that we may enjoy true repose aņd peace It was on the first of March, that we receive all the above recited be

of conscience; we understand and confess 1534, that Farel was conducted by nefits from God by his mercy and grace a numerous body of citizens to the alone, without any consideration of our convent of the Franciscans, and in

deserts or of the merit of our works-to their church for the first time pub- confusion.

which no other reward is due than eternal

Nevertheless our (gracious) licly preached the doctrines of the

God, having, of his goodness, received us Reformation. The see of Geneva to the communion of his Son Jesus Christ, was declared vacant by the Coun- accepts the works which we do in faith as cil in the September of that year; they merit this, but that he does not im

pleasant and agreeable to him; not that a public disputation took place in pute to us their imperfection, but recog: May, 1535; and the Reformation nises only what proceeds from his Spirit. was established by a public edict Art. 11: The way of admission opened the 27th of the following August. for us to the enjoyment of so great treaThe Confession of Faith drawn faith-when in sure affiance and confi. up By Farel was sanctioned by the dence of heart we believe the promises of

p. 280.

the Gospel, and receive Jesus Christ as he accompanied them to Paris, where is presented to us by the Father, and de

the celebrated grammarian Corscribed to us by the word of God.'”

pp. dery was his teacher. From his 311-313.

youth he was remarkable for graWe may well here pause, to vity, and rather stern rebukes of adore the wisdom and grace of vice. In 1521, at the age of God which thus prepared the way twelve, he obtained a benefice in for the labours of Calvin, by men the Church of Rome at Noyon; perhaps more adapted than him- and afterwards, in 1527 and 1529, self for that particular work; and the parochial cures of Marteville which, so far as we can judge, he and Pont l'Evêque, where he is rewas incapable of effecting; just as lated to have delivered discourses they would have been inadequate to the people, even before his adto that consolidation and defence mission into full orders. He afof the whole cause of pure religion, terwards changed his pursuits from which he for nearly thirty years theology to the civil law, at the incarried on, and then resigned to stance of his father, though he still the able hands of his disciple and continued to study the Sacred fellow-labourer, Beza. Nor can Scriptures with intense eagerness. we fail to notice the concurrence He published his first work in of events in the Divine Providence, 1532, at the age of twenty-threewhich enabled this small state to a commentary on Seneca's De Clestruggle into liberty, from the mentia. Soon after this, his fathraldom of Friburg and the court ther being now dead, he determin-' of Savoy, that it might become ed to dedicate himself wholly to the strong hold of truth and the the service of God, his mind havcentre of the Protestant cause. ing been gradually more and more

We come now to our notices of directed to this object by his study Calvin, whose history occupies of the Scriptures, and the acquaintnearly three hundred


of this ance of several pious men. Acvolume—a space, long as it-may cordingly he came to Paris, and appear, not in the least too extend began to propagate his sentiments, ed. We question if, in the whole but was soon compelled to retire eight volumes of ecclesiastical an- from it by the persecution which nals of the Milners and Mr. Scott, his zeal excited. This was in Nothere is any portion more impor- vember, 1533. He ventured there tant, more impartially conducted, again the following year; but was more remarkably opportune to the again forced to fly by the violence circumstances of the present times of Francis the First, who was perthan this. We cannot spare a sin- secuting the Protestants of his own gle page, and scarcely a quotation. country, whilst, for political purNor can we sufficiently admire poses, he was seeking to support the calmness, the independence of those in Germany. Calvin, after mind, the clear and penetrating visiting Strasburg, fixed himself judgment which our author exhi- at Basle, and here published, in bits, and which make us look for- 1535, at the age of twenty-seven, ward with strong anticipation to his most celebrated work, The Inhis intended account of the Eng- stitutes of the Christian Religion, lish Reformation.

without his name, and merely to John Cauvin, Chauvin, or, ac- defend the Protestants against the cording to the Latin and usual calumny which would confound form, Calvin, was born at Noyon, them with the wildness and fana'in Picardy, July 10, 1509. He re- ticism of the Anabaptists. The ceived his early education with the work had then only six chapters; children of a family of rank, and but though it was the labour of his

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