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Ile. 30. 33. Jer. 7. 31. 39.
m Josh. 15.8.
P c. 21. 5.
f or, ran
10 And he defiled Topheth,' which is in the val. 1 Zidonians, and for Chemosh the abomination of the ley "of the children of Hinnom, "that no man might Moabites, and for Milcom the abomination of the make his son or his daughter to pass through the children of Ammon, did the king defile. fire to Molech.
14 And he brake rin pieces the images, and 11 And he took away the horses that the kings cut down the groves, and filled their places with the of Judah had given to the sun, at the entering in of bones of men. the house of the Lord, by the chamber of Nathan 15 Moreover, the altar that was at Beth-el, and melech the chamberlain, which was in the suburbs, the high place which Jeroboam the son of Nebat, and burnt the chariots of the sun with fire.
who made Israel to sin, had made, both that altar and 12 And the altars that were on the top of the high place he brake down, and burnt the high upper chamber of Ahaz, which the kings of Judah had place, and stamped it small to powder, and burut made, and the altars which Manasseh had made the grove. in the two courts of the house of the LORD, did the 16 And as Josiah turned himself, he spied the king beat down, and brake them down from thence, the sepulchres that were there in the mount, and and cast the dust of them into the brook Kidron. sent, and took the bones out of the sepulchres, and
13 And the high places that were before Jerusa- burnt them upon the altar, and polluted it, accordlem, which were on the right hand of the mount ing to the word 'of' the LORD, which the man of God of Corruption, which Solomon şthe king of Israel proclaimed, who proclaimed these words. had builded for Ashtoreth the abomination of the 17 Then he said, What title is that that I see?
n Lev. 18. 21. Deut. 18. 10. Ez. 23, 37, from thence. fi.e. the mount of Oliver. q 1 Kings 11.7. r Ex. 23. 24. Num. 33. or, curuch, or, oficer. o Jer. 19. 13. Zeph. 1.5.
52. Deut. 7.5, 25. Mic. I. 7. S statuee. . 1 Kings 12.2, 33. 11 King 13.2. to relate!) a brothel, in an impudent defiance of the holiness of or other false gods, he put to death, according to the law; (v. 20,) God and his temple; well might the apostle call them abomi- he slew them upon their own altars, the most acceptable sacrinable idolatries.
fice that ever bad been offered upon them, a sacrifice to the 4. There were many idolatrous altars found, (v. 12,) some justice of God: those that were descendants from Aaron, and in the palace, on the iop of the upper chamber of Ahaz; the yet had burned incense in the high places, but to the true God roofs of their houses being fiat, they made them their high only, he forbade ever to approach the altar of the Lord, they places, and set up altars upon them, (Jer. 19. 13. Zeph. 1.5,) had forfeited that honour; (v. 9,) he brought them out of the domestic altars; the kings of Judah did so: and though Josiah cities of Judah, (v. 8,) that they might not do mischief in the never used them, yet to this time they remained there. Ma- country by secretly keeping up their old idolatrons usages ; but nasseh had built altars for his idols in the house of the Lord; he allowed them to eat of the unleavened bread, (the bread of when he repented, he removed them, and cast them out of the the meat-offering, Lev. 2. 4, 5,) among their brethren, with city, (2 Chr. 33. 15,) but, not destroying them, his son Amon, whom they were to reside, that being under their eye, they it seems, had brought them again into the courts of the temple, might be kept from doing hurt, and taught to do well; that there Josiah found them, and thence he brake them down, v. 12. bread, that unleavened bread, (heavy and unpleasant as it was,)
5. There was Tophei, in the valley of the son of Hinnom, was better than they deserved, and that would serve to keep very near Jerusalem, where the image of Molech (that god of them alive; but whether they were permitted to eat of all the unnatural cruelty, as others were of unnatural uncleanness) sacrifices, as blemished priests were, (Lev. 21. 22,) which is was kept, to which some sacrificed their children, burning them called, in general, the bread of their God, may be justly ques. in the fire, others dedicated them, making them to pass through lioned. the fire, (v. 10,) labouring in the very fire, Hab. 2. 13. It is 3. All the images were broken to pieces, and burned; the supposed to have been called Tophet, from loph, a drum, because image of the grove, (v.6,) some goddess or other, was reduced they beat drums at the burning of the children, that their shrieks to ashes, and the ashes cost upon the graves of the common peomight not be heard.
ple, (v. 6,) the common burying-place of the city. By the law, 6. There were high places before Jerusalem, which Solomon a ceremonial uncleanness was contracted by the touch of a grave, had built, v. 13. The altars and images on those high places, so that in casting them here, he declared them most impure, we may suppose, had been taken away by some of the prece- and none could touch them without making themselves unclean ding godly kings, or, perhaps, Solomon himself had removed by it: he cast it into the graves, so the Chaldee, intimating that them when he became a penitent, but the buildings, or some he would have all idolatry buried out of his sight, as a loathparts of them, remained, with other high places, till Josiah's some thing, and forgotten, as dead men are out of mind; (v. 14,) time. They that introduce corruptions into religion, know not he filled the places of the groves with the bones of men as he how far they will reach, nor how long they will last; antiquity carried the ashes of the images to the graves, to mingle them is no certain proof of verity: there were also high places all with dead men's bones, so he carried dead men's bones to the the kingdom over, from Geba to Beersheba, (v. 8,) and high places where the images had been, and put them in the room places of the gates, in the entering in of the gate of the governor. of them, that, both ways, idolatry might be rendered loathsome, In those high places, Bishop Patrick thinks, they burned incense and the people kept both from the dust of the images, and from to those tutelar gods, to whom their idolatrous kings had com the ruins of the places where they had been worshipped; dead mitted the protection of their city; and, probably, the governor men, and dead gods, were much alike, and fittest to go toof the city had a private altar for his penates-his household gether. gods.
4. All the wicked houses were suppressed; those nests of 7. There were idolatrous priests, that officiated at all those impiety that harboured idolaters, the houses of the sodomites, idolatrous altars, (v. 5;) Chemarim, black men, or that wore v. 7, (down with them, down with them, raze them 10 the black; see Zeph. 1. 4.' They that sacrificed to Osiris, or that foundations;) the high places were, in like manner, broken wept for Tammuz, (Ez. 8. 14,) or that worshipped the infer- down and levelled with the ground, (v. 8,) even that which benal deities, put on black garments as mourners. Those idola- longed to the governor of the city, for no man's greatness or trous priests, the kings of Judah had ordained to turn incense power may protect him in idolatry or profaneness; let goverin the high places; they were, it should seem, priests of the nors be obliged, in the first place, to reform, and then the house of Aaron, who thus profaned their dignity, and there governed will be the sooner influenced: he defiled the high were others also who had no right at all to the priesthood, who places, (v. 8, and again, v. 13:) did all he could to render them burned incense to Baal.
abominable, and put the people out of conceit with them, as 8. There were conjurers and wizards, and such as dealt with Jehu did when he made the house of Baal a draught house, familiar spirits, v. 24. When they worshipped the devil as 2 Kings 10. 27. Tophet, which, contrary to other places of their god, no marvel that they consulted him as their oracle. idolatry, was in a valley, whereas they were on hills or high · II. What a full destruction good Josiah made of all those places, was likewise defiled, (v. 10.) was made the buryingrelics of idolatry ; such his zeal for the Lord of hosts, and his place of the city; concerning this we have a whole sermon, Jer. holy indignation against all that is displeasing to him, that 19. 1, 2, &c. where it is said, They shall bury in Tophet; and nothing shall stand before him; the law was, that the monu the whole city is threatened to be made like Tophet. ments of the Canaanites' idolatry must be all destroyed, (Deut. 5. The horses that had been given to the sun, were taken 7.5,) much more of the idolatry of the Israelites, in whom it away, and put to common use, and so were delivered from the was much more impious, profane, and perfidious.
vanity to which they were made subject; and the chariots 1. He orders Hilkiah, and the other priests, to clear the tem- of the sun (what pity was it that those horses and chariots ple, that was their province, v. 4. Away with all the vessels should be kept as the chariots and horsemen of Israel!) he that were made for Baal. They must never be employed in burned with fire; and if the sun be a flame, they never resemthe service of God, no, nor reserved for any common use, they bled him so as they did when they were chariots of fire. must all be burned, and the ashes of them carried to Bethel; 6. The workers with familiar spirits, and the wizards, were that place had been the common source of idolatry, for there I put away, v.24. Those of them that were convicted of witchwas set up one of the calves, and that lying nexi to Judah, craft, it is likely, he put to death, and so deterred others from thence the infection had spread into that kingdom, and there those diabolical practices; in all this, he had a sincere regard fore now he makes it the laystall of idolatry, the dunghill 10 to the words of the law which were written in the book lately which he carries the filth and offscouring of all things, that, if found, (v, 24 :) he made that bis rule, and kept that in his eye possible, it might be made loathsome to those that had been throughout this reformation. fond of it.
III. How his zeal extended itself to the cities of Israel that 2. The idolatrous priests were all put down ; those of them were within his reach. The ten tribes were carried captive; that were not of the house of Aaron, or had sacrificed to Baal,' the Assyrian colonies did not fully people the country, so that,
p 2 Chr. 34. 6, 7. 1 2 Chr. 31. 5.
22. 20. I Kinn 18. 40. c. 11. 18.
ec. 18. 5.
• Lev. 19. 31. 20. 27. Deut. 18. 11. e Neh. 10. 29.
I Kings 8. 48. Jer. 29. 13.
And the men of the city told him, It is the sepulchre | wherein this passover was holden to the Lord in of the man of God which came from Judah, and Jerusalem. proclaimed these things that thou hast done against 24 Moreover, “the workers with familiar spirits, the altar of Beth-el.
and the wizards, and the images, and the idols, 18 And he said, Let him alone; let no man move and all the abominations that were spied in the land his bones. So they let his bones *alone, with the of Judah and in Jerusalem, did Josiah put away, bones of the prophet at came out of Samaria.
that he might perform the words of the law which 19 And all the houses also of the high places were written in the book that Hilkiah the priest that were in the cities of Samaria, which the kings found in the house of the Lord. of Israel had made to provoke the Lord to anger, 25 And like unto him was there no king before Josiah took away, and did to them according to all him, that turned to the Lord with all his heart, the acts that he had done in Beth-el.
and with all his soul, and with all his might, ac20 And he 'slew wall the priests of the high cording to all the law of Moses ; neither after him places that were there upon the altars, and burnt arose there any like him. men's bones supon them, and returned to Jeru 26 Notwithstanding the LORD turned not from salem.
the fierceness of his great wrath, wherewith his 21 And the king commanded all the people, anger was kindled against Judah, because of all the saying, Keep the passover unto the Lord your God, Sprovocations that Manasseh had provoked him as it is written vin the book of this covenant.
withal. 22 Surely there was not holden such a passover 27 And the LORD said, I will remove Judah from the days of the judges that judged Israel, nor also out of my sight, as I have removed "Israel, and in all the days of the kings of Israel, nor of the kings will cast off this city Jerusalem which I have chosen, of Judah;
and the house of which I said, My name shall be 23 But in the eighteenth year of king Josiah, there. ut Kings 13. 30, 31. • to escape.
tor, Ieraphim, Gen. 31, 19. y Er. 12. 3, c. Num. 9. 2.
S c. 21. 11. 12. 24. 3, 4. Jer. 15. 4. Deut. 16.2, &c. z 2 Chr. 35. 18, 19. a c. 2.6. Rev.22. 15.
angeri. & c. 21. 13. A c. 17. 18, 20. 18.11.' il Kinga 9. 3. it is likely, many cities had put themselves under the protec ordinances of God, but Josiah considered that we must learn to tion of the kings of Judah, 2 Chr. 30. 1.-34. 6. These he do well, and not only cease to do evil, and that the way to keep here visits, to carry on his reformation ; as far as our influence out all abominable customs, is to keep up all instituted ordigoes, our endeavours should go to do good, and bring the wicked- nances, (see Lev. 18. 30;) and therefore he commanded all the ness of the wicked to an end.
people to keep the passover, which was not only a memorial of 1. He detiled and demolished Jeroboam's altar at Bethel, their deliverance out of Egypt, but a token of their dedication with the high place and the grove that belonged to it, v. 15, 16. to him that brought them out, and their communion with bim : The golden calf, it should seem, was gone, (Thy calf, O Sa- this he found written in the book of the law, here called the book maria, has cast thee off,) but the altar was there, which those of the covenant; for though the divine authority may deal with that were wedded to their old idolatries, made use of still; this us in a way of absolute command, divine grace condescends to was, (1.) Defiled, v. 16. Josiah, in his pious zeal, was ran federal transactions, and therefore he observed it. We have sacking the old seats of idolatry, and spied the sepulchres in not such a particular account of this passover as of that in the mount, in which, probably, the idolatrous priests were Hezekiah's time, (2 Chr. 30.) but, in general, that there was buried, not far from the altar at which they had officiated, and not holden such a passover in any of the foregoing reigns, no not which they were so fond of, that they were desirous to lay their from the days of the judges, (v. 22 :) which, by the way, inbones by it; these he opened, took out the bones, and burned timates that though the account which the book of Judges gives them upon the altar, to show that thus he would have done by of the state of Israel under that dynasty, looks but melancholy, the priests themselves, if they had been alive, as he did by yet there were then some golden days. This passover, it those whom he found alive, (v. 20,) thus he polluted the altar, seems, was extraordinary for the number and devotion of the desecrated it, and made it odious. It is threatened against communicants, their sacrifices and offerings, and their exact idolaters, Jer. 8. 1, 2, that their bones shall be spread before the observance of ihe laws of the feast ; and it was not now, as in sun; that which is there threatened, and this which is here Hezekiah's passover, when many communicated, that were not executed, (bespeaking their iniquity to be upon their bones, cleansed according to the purification of the sanctuary, and the Ez. 32. 27,) are an intimation of a punishment after death, re Levites were permitted to do the priests' work. We have reaserved for those that live and die impenitent in that or any other son to think that during all the remainder of Josiah's reign, resin ; the burning of the bones, if thai were all, is a small matter; ligion flourished, and the feasts of the Lord were very carefully but if it signify the torment of the soul in a worse flame, (Luke observed ; but in this passover, the satisfaction they took in the 16.24,) it is very dreadful. This, as it was Josiah's act, seems covenant lately renewed, the reformation in pursuance of it, to be the result of a very sudden resolve; he had not done it, and the revival of an ordinance which they had lately found the but that he happened to turn himself, and spy the sepulchres, divine original of in the book of the law, and which had long and yet it was foretold above 350 years before, when this altar been neglected or carelessly kepı, put them into transports of was first built by Jeroboam, 1 Kings 13.2. God always fore-holy joy; and God was pleased to recompense their zeal in desees, and has sometimes foretold as certain, that which yet to stroying idolatry with uncommon tokens of his presence and us seems most contingent; the king's heart is in the hand of the favour ; all this concurred to make it a distinguished passover. Lord; king Josiah's was so, and he turned it (or ever he him V. 25—30. Upon the reading of these verses, we must say, self was aware, Cant. 6. 12,) to do this; no word of God shall Lord, though thy righteousness be as the great mountains, evifall to the ground. (2.) It was demolished; he brake down the dent, conspicuous, and past dispute, yet thy judgments are a altar and all its appurtenances, v. 15, burned what was combus great deep, unfathomable, and past finding out, Ps. 36.6. What tible, and, since an idol is nothing in the world, he went as far shall we say to this? toward the annihilating of it as he could, for he stamped il small I. It is here owned that Josiah was one of the best kings that to powder, and made it as dust before the wind.
ever sat upon the throne of David, v. 25. As Hezekiah was a 2. He destroyed all the houses of the high places, all those nonsuch for faith and dependence upon God in straits, (ch. 18. synagogues of Satan that were in the cities of Samaria, v. 19. 5,) so Josiah was a nonsuch for sincerity and zeal in carrying These the kings of Israel built, and God raised up this king of on a work of reformation. For this, there was none like him. Judah to pull them down, for the honour of the ancient house 1. That he turned to the Lord from whom his fathers had reof David, from which the ten tribes had revolled; the priests volted. It is true religion to turn to God, as one we have he justly made sacrifices upon their own allars, v. 20.
chosen, and love. He did what he could to turn his kingdom 3. He carefully preserved the sepulchre of that man of God, also to the Lord. 2. That he did this with his heart and soul; who came from Judah to foretel this, which now a king who his affections and aims were right in what he did. Those make came from Judah, executed ; this was that good prophet who nothing of their religion, that do not make heart work of proclaimed these things against the altar of Bethel, and yet it. 3. That he did it with all his heart, and all his soul, and all was himself slain by a lion for disobeying the word of the Lord; | his might; with vigour, and courage, and resolution; he could but to show that God's displeasure against him went no further not otherwise have broken through the difficulties he had to than his death, but ended there, God so ordered it, that when grapple with. What great things may we bring to pass in the all the graves about his were dis:urbed, his was safe, (v.17, 18,) service of God, if we be but lively and hearly in it! 4. That and no man moved his bones: he was entered into peace, and he did this, according to all the law of Moses; in an exact obtherefore shall rest in his bed, Is. 57. 2. The old lying pro servance of that law, and with an actual regard to it. His zeal phet, who desired to be buried as near him as might be, it should did not transport him into any irregularities, but, in all he did, seem, knew what he did, for his dust also being mingled with he walked by rule. that of the good prophet, was preserved for his sake; see II. Notwithstanding this, he was cut off by a violent death, Num. 23. 10.
in the midst of his days, and his kingdom was ruined within a Lastly, We are here told what a solemn passover Josiah and few years after. Consequent upon such a reformation as this, his people kep', after all this. When they had cleared the one would have cxpected nothing but the prosperity and glory country of the old leaven, then they applied themselves to the both of king and kingdom; but, quite contrary, we find both keeping of the feast ; when Jehu had destroyed the worship of under a cloud. Baal, yet he took no heed to walk in the commandments and 1. Even the reformed kingdom continues marked for ruin.
II. The desolations of his son's reign, which continued but three months and then
of an hundred talents of silver, andliakalente Send I cahies dayandebesbiadnezzar king of Babylon
I Zech. 12. 11. 1 Chr. 3. 15. Jer. 22. II. nc. 24. 18.
1 or, because
28 Now the rest of the acts of Josiah, and all Josiah king in the room of Josiah_ his father, and that he did, are they not written in the book of the turned phis name to Jehoiakim, and took Jehoahaz chronicles of the kings of Judah?
away: and he came to Egypt, and died there. 29 In this days Pharaoh-nechoh king of Egypt 35 And Jehoiakim gave the silver and the gold went up against the king of Assyria to the river to Pharaoh ; but he taxed the land to give the Euphrates : and king Josiah went against him; and money according to the commandment of Pharaoh : he slew him at Megiddo, when he had seen him. he exacted the silver and the gold of the people of
30 And his servants carried him in a chariot the land, of every one according to his taxation, 10 dead from Megiddo, and brought him to Jerusalem, give it unto Pharaoh-nechoh. and buried him in his own sepulchre. And mthe 36 Jehoiakim was twenty and five years old when people of the land took Jehoahaz the son of Josiah, he began to reign; and he reigned eleven years in and anointed him, and made him king in his father's Jerusalem: and his mother's name was Zebudah, stead.
the daughter of Pedajah of Rumah. 31 Jehoahaz* was twenty and three years old 37 And he did that which was evil in the sight of when he began to reign; and he reigned three months the Lord, according to all that his fathers had done. in Jerusalem. And his mother's name was "Hamu
CHAPTER XXIV. tal, the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah.
Things are here ripening for, and hastening toward, the utter destruction of Jeru. 32 And he did that which was evil in the sight salem. We leri Jehoinkim on the throne, placed there by the king of Egypt :
now here we have, I. The troubles of his reign, how he was brought into cubo of the Lord, according to all that his fathers had
Jection by the king of Bahylon, and severely chastised for attempting to sbake off done.
the yoke, v. 1-6, and how Exypt also was conquered by Nebuchaduzzar, Y. 7. 33 And Pharaoh-nechoh put him in bands at he, and all his great men, being forced to surrender at discretion, were carried Riblah," in the land of Hamath, that he might not
captives to Babylon, v. 8-16. III. The preparatives of the next reign, (which
was the last of all,) for the utter ruin of Jerusalem, which the next chajter will reign in Jerusalem; and put the land to a tribute give us an account of, v. 17-20.
Eliakim the son of came his * 2 Chr. 35. 20. &c.
m 2 Chr. 36, 1, Sc. • called Shallum, he reigned. I set a mulct upon the land, 2 Chr. 36. 3. Gen. 41. 45. c. 24. O c. 25. 6. Jer. 52. 27.
17. Dan. 1.7. Jer. 22. 11. 12. E,. 19. 3, 4. rver. 33, 2 Chr. 36. 5, &c. For all this, (v. 26,) The Lord turned not from the fierceness fared the better for his piety; but deviating from them, they of his greal wrath. That is certainly true, which God spake fared the worse for his rashness. by the prophet, Jer. 18. 7, 8, That if a nation, doomed to de I. Jehoahaz, a younger son, was first made king by the peostruction, lurn from the evil of sin, God will repent of the evil of ple of the land; probably, because he was observed to be of a punishment; and therefore we must conclude that Josiah's peo more active warlike genius than his elder brother, and likely to ple, though they submitted to Josiah's power, did not heartily make head against the king of Egypt, and to avenge his imbibe Josiah's principles. They were turned by force, they father's death, which perhaps the people were more solicitous did not voluntarily turn from their evil way, but still continued about, in point of honour, than the keeping up and carrying their affection for their idols; and therefore he that knows men's on his father's reformation; and the issue was accordingly. hearts, would not recall the sentence, which was, That Judah 1. He did ill, v. 32. Though he had a good education, and a should be removed, as Israel had been, and Jerusalem itself good example, given him, and many a good prayer, we may supcast off, v. 27. Yet even this destruction was intended to be pose, put up for him, yet he did that which was evil in the sight their effectual reformation; so that we must say, not only that of the Lord, and, it is to be feared, began to do so in his father's the criminals had filled their measure, and were ripe for ruin, lifetime, for his reign was so short, that he could not, in that, but also that the disease was come to a crisis, and was ready show much of his character. He did according to all that his for a cure; and this shall be all the fruji, even the taking away wicked fathers had done. Though he had not time to do much, of sin.
yet he had chosen his patterns, and showed whom he intended 2. As an evidence of this, even the reforming king is cut off to follow, and whose steps he resolved to tread in; and having in the midst of his usefulness, in mercy to him, thai be might done this, he is here reckoned to have done according to all the not see the evil which was coming upon his kingdom; but in evil which they did, whom he proposed to imitate. The choice wrath to his people, for his death was an inlet to their desola- of persons whom the young take for their example, is of setions. The king of Egypt waged war, it seems, with the king rious consequence; an error in this choice is fatal, Phil. 3. of Assyria, (so the king of Babylon is now called,) Josiah's 17, 18. kingdom lay between them; he therefore thought himself con 2. Doing ill, no wonder that he fared ill. He was but threo corned to oppose the king of Egypt, and check the growing, months a prince, and was then made a prisoner, and lived and threatening, greatness of his power; for though, at this time, he died so. The king of Egypt seized him, and put him in bands, protested that he had no design against Josiah, yet if he should (v. 33,) fearing lest he should give him disturbance, and carried prevail to unite the river of Egypt and the river Euphrates, the him to Egypt, where he died soon after, v. 34. This Jehoahaz land of Judah would soon be overflowed between them; there is that young lion whom Ezekiel speaks of in his lamentation fore Josiah went against him, and was killed in the first engage- for the princes of Israel, that learned to catch the prey and dement, n. 29, 30. Here, (1.) We cannot justify Josiah's con vour men, (that was the evil which he did in the sight of the duct; he had no clear call to engage in this war, nor do we find Lord,) but the nations heard of him, he was taken in their pil, that he asked counsel of God by Urim, or prophets, concerning and they brought him with chains into the land of Egypt, Ėz. it. What had he to do, to appear and act as a friend and ally 19.1–4. See Jer. 22. 10–12. to the king of Assyria ? Should he help the ungodly, and love II. Eliakim, another son of Josiah, was made king by the them that hale the Lord? If the kings of Egypt and Assyria king of Egypt; it is not said in the room of Jehoahaz, (his reign quarrelled, he had reason to think God would bring good out of was so short, that it was scarcely worth taking notice of,) but it to him and his people, and make them instrumental to weaken in the room of Josiah. The crown of Judah had, hitherto, one another. Some understand the promise made to him, always descended from a father to a son, and never, till now, (That he should come to his grave in peace,) in a sense in which from one brother to another; once, the succession had so hapit was not performed, because, by his miscarriage in this mat-pened in the house of Ahab, but never, till now, in the house of ter, he forfeited the benefit of it. God has promised to keep us David. The king of Egypt, having used his power in making in all our ways; but if we go out of our way, we throw ourselves him king, further showed it in changing his name, he called him out of his protection. I understand the promise so, as that I Jchoiakim, a name that has reference to Jehovah, for he had no believe it was fulfilled, for he died in peace with God and his design to make him renounce or forget the religion of his counown conscience, and saw not, nor had any immediate prospect try; all people will walk in the name of their God, and let him of, the destruction of Judah and Jerusalem by the Chaldeans ;
The king of Babylon did not do so by those whose yet I understand the providence to be a rebuke to him for his names he changed, Dan. 1.7. rashness. (2.) We must adore God's righteousness, in taking of this Jehoiakim we are here told, 1, That the king of away such a jowel from an unthankful people that knew not how Egypt made him poor, exacted from him a vast tribute of to value it. They greatly lamented his death, (2 Chr. 35. 25, one hundred talents of silver, and a talent of gold, (v. 33,) which, urged to it by Jeremiah, who told them the meaning of it, and with much difficulty, he squeezed out of his subjects, and gave what a threateninng omen it was; but they had not made a due to Pharaoh, v. 35. Formerly, the Israelites had spoiled the improvement of the mercies they enjoyed by his life, of which Egyptians, now, the Egyptians spoil Israel: see what woful God talight them the worth by the want.
changes sin makes. 2. That which made him poor, yet did V. 31-37. Jerusalem saw not a good day after Josiah was not make him good; notwithstanding the rebukes of Providence laid in his grave, but one trouble come after another, till, within he was under, by which he should have been convinced, hum22 years, it was quite destroyed. Of the reign of two of his bled, and reformed, he did that which was evil in the sight of sons here is a short account; the former we find here a prisoner, the Lord, (v. 37,) and so prepared against himself greater and the latter a tributary, to the king of Egypt, and both so in judgments; for such God will send, if lesser do not do the work the very begiuning of their reign. This king of Egypt having for which they are sent. slain Josiah, though he had not had any design upon Judah, yet, being provoked by the opposition which Josiah gave him, now, it should seem, he bent all his force against his family and king V.1—. We have here the first mention of a name which dom. If Josiah's sons had trodden in his steps, they would have I makes a great figure both in the histories, and in the prophecies,
NOTES TO CHAPTER XXIV.
m Ver. 20. 17.
OC 25. 12.
three years: then he turned and rebelled against months. And his mother's name was Nehushta, him.
the daughter of Elnathan of Jerusalem. 2 And 'the Lord sent against him bands of the 9 And he did that which was evil in the sight Chaldees, and bands of the Syrians, and bands of of the Lord, according to all that his father had the Moabites, and bands of the children of Am- done. mon, and sent them against Judah to destroy it, 10 At kthat time the servants of Nebuchadnezzar according to the word of the Lord, which he spake king of Babylon came up against Jerusalem, and the by this servants the prophets.
city #was besieged. 3 Surely at the commandment of the Lord came íi And Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came this upon Judah, to remove them out of his sight, against the city, and his servants did besiege it. for the sins of Manasseh, according to all that he 12 And 'Jehoiachin the king of Judah went out
to the king of Babylon, he, and his mother, and his 4 And also for the innocent blood dthat he shed, servants, and his princes, and his sofficers:' and the (for “he filled Jerusalem with innocent blood,) which king of Babylon took him in the eighth year of his the Lord would not pardon.
reign. 5 Now the rest of the acts of Jehoiakim, and all 13 And he carried out thence all the treasures of that he did, are they not written in the book of the the house of the Lord, and the treasures of the chronicles of the kings of Judah?
king's bouse, and cut in pieces all the vessels of gold 6 So:Jehoiakim slept with his fathers : and Jehoi- which Solomon king of Ísrael had made in the temachin his son reigned in his stead.
ple of the LORD, as the LORD rhad said. 7 And the king of Egypt came not again any 14 And "he carried away all Jerusalem, and all more out of his land: for the king of Babylon had the princes, and all the mighty men of valour, even taken from the river of Egypt unto the river ten thousand captives, and all the craftsmen and Euphrates, all that pertained to the king of Egypt. smiths: pone remained, save the poorest «sort of
8 Jehoiachin twas eighteen years old when he the people of the land. began to reign: and he reigned in Jerusalem three 15 And he carried away Jehoiachin to Babylon,
Jer. 25. 9. 32. 28. E., 19. 8. • by the hand of CEx. 20, 5. c. 23. 26. d Deut. called Jeconicah, I Chr. 3.16. Jer. 24. 1 ; and Coniah, Jer. 22. 24. 23. & Dan. 19. 10. c. 21. 16. Jer. 2. 34. 19. 4. & Ps. 106. 38. Ez. 33. 25. & Jer. 22. 18, 19. 1.1, 2. 1 came into seige.
Jer. 29. 1, 2.
sor, eunuchs. A Jer. 37. 5, 7. i Jer. 46. 2.
n Jer. 24. 1. of the Old Testament; it is that of Nebuchadnezzar, king of Ba III. The king of Egypt was likewise subdued by the king of bylon, (v. 1) that head of gold. A potent prince, and one that Babylon, and a great part of his country taken froin him, v. 7. was the terror of the mighty in the land of the living: and yet his It was but lately that he had oppressed Israel, (ch. 23. 33,) name had not been known in sacred writ, if it had not been now he is himself brought down, and disabled to attempt any employed in the destruction of Jerusalem and the captivity of thing for the recovery of his losses, or the assistance of his the Jews.
allies; he dares not come any more out of his land. Afterward, I. He made Jehoiakim his tributary, and kept him in subjec- he attempted to give Zedekiah some relief, but he was obliged tion three years, v. I. Nebuchadnezzar began his reign in the to retire, Jer. 37.7. fourth year of Jehoiakim; in his eighth year he made him his IV. Jehoiakim, seeing his country laid waste, and himself prisoner, but restored him, upon his promise of faithfulness to ready to fall into the enemy's hand, as it should seem, died of a him; that promise he kept about three years, but then rebelled, broken heart, in the midst of his days, v. 6. So Jehoiakim probably, in hopes of assistance from the king of Egypt. If slept with his fathers; but it is not said that he was buried with Jehoiakim had served his God as he should have done, he had them; for, no doubt, the prophecy of Jeremiah was fulfilled, not been servant to the king of Babylon; but God would thus that he should not bé lamented, as his father was, but buried make him know the difference between his service and the with the burial of an ass, (Jer. 22, 18, 19,) and his dead body service of the kings of the countries, 2 Chr. 12. 8. If he had cast out, Jer. 36. 30. been content with his servitude, and true to his word, his V.8—20. This should have been the history of king Jehoicondition had been no worse ; but, rebelling against the king achin's reign, but, alas, it is only the history of king Jehoiachin's of Babylon, he plunged himself into more trouble.
captivity, as it is called, Ez. 1.2. He came to the crown, II. When he rebelled, he sent his forces against him to destroy not to have the honour of wearing it, but the shame of losing it; his country, bands of Chaldeans, Syrians, Moabites, Ammon Ideo tantum venerat, ut erirel-He came in, only to go out. ites, who were all now in the service and pay of the king of 1. His reign was short and inconsiderable; he reigned but Babylon, (v.2,) and withal retained, and now showed, their three months, and then was removed and carried captive 10 ancient enmity to the Israel of God. Yet no mention is here Babylon, as his father, it is likely, would have been, if he had made of their commission from the king of Babylon, but only of lived but so much longer. What an unhappy young prince that from the King of kings. The Lord sent against him all these was this, that was thrust into a falling house, a sinking throne ! bands. And again, (v. 3,) Surely at the commandment of What an unnatural father had he, who begat him to suffer for the Lord, came this upon Judah, else the commandment of him; and by his own sin and folly had left himself nothing to Nebuchadnezzar could not have brought it. Many are serving bequeath to his son but his own miseries! Yet this young God's purposes, who are not aware of it.
prince reigned long enough to show that he justly smarted for Two things God intended in suffering Judah to be thus his fathers' sins, for he trod in their steps, v. 9. He did that harassed. 1. The punishment of the sins of Manasseh, which which was evil in the sight of the Lord, as they had done ; he God now visited upon the third and fourth generation. So long did nothing to cut off the entail of the curse, to discharge the he waited before he visited them, to see if the nation would encumbrances of his crown, and therefore (Transit cum onere repent; but they continued impenitent, notwithstanding Josiah's The encumbrance descends with the crown) with his own iniquity endeavours to reform them, and ready to relapse, upon the first that of his fathers shall come into the account. turn, into their former idolatries; now that the old bond was II. The calamities that came upon him, and his family, and put in suit, they were called up, upon the former judgment; people, in the ery beginning of his reign, were very grievous. that was revived, which God had laid up in store, and sealed 1. Jerusalem was besieged by the king of Babylon, v. 10, 11, among his treasures, (Deut. 32. 34. Job 14. 17,) and, in re He had sent his forces to ravage the country, (v. 2,) now he membrance of that, he removed Judah out of his sight, and let came himself, and laid sjege to the city. Now the word of the world know that time will not wear out the guilt of sin, and God was fulilled, (Deut. 28. 49, &c.) The Lord shall bring a that reprieves are not pardons. All that Manasseh did, was nation against thee from far, of fierce countenance, that shall called io mind, but especially the innocent blood that he shed, first eat the fruit of thy land, and then besiege thee in all thy gates, much of which, we may suppose, was the blood of God's 2. Jehoiachin immediately surrendered at discretion. As witnesses and worshippers, which ihe Lord would not pardon. soon as he heard the king of Babylon was come in person Is there then any unpardonable sin but the blasphemy against against the city, his name being, at this time, become very the Holy Ghost? This is meant of the remitting of the tem formidable, he beat a parley, and went out to him, v. 12. Had poral punishment: though Manasseh repented, and we have he made his peace with God, and taken the method that Hezereason to think that even the persecutions and murders he was kiah did in the like case, he needed not to have feared the king guilty of, were pardoned, so that he was delivered from the of Babylon, but might have held out with courage, honour, and wrath to come; yet, as they were national sins, they lay still success; (one should have chased a thousand :) but, wanting charged upon the land, crying for national judgments. Per- the faith and piety of an Israelite, he had not the resolution of haps, some were now living who were aiding and abetting; a man, of a sole of a prince. He and his royal
ily, his and the present king was guilty of innocent blood, as appears, mother and wives, his servants and princes, delivered themJer. 22. 17. See what a provoking sin murder is, how loud it selves up prisoners of war; this was the consequence of their cries, and how long! See what need nations have to lament the being servants of sin. sins of their fathers, lest they smart for them. 2. God intended 3. Nebuchadnezzar rifled the treasures both of the church hereby the accomplishment of the prophecies; it was according and of the state, and carried away the silver and gold of both, to the word of the Lord, which he spake by his servants the prophets. v.13. Now the word of God, by Isaiah, was fulfilled, (ch.20. 17,) Rather shall Judah be removed out of his sight, nay rather shall All that is in thine house, shall be carried to Babylon. Even heaven and earth pass away, than any word of God fall to the the vessels of the temple which Solomon had made, and laid ground. Threatenings will be fulfilled as certainly as promises, up in store to be used as the old ones wero worn out, he cut off if the sinner's repentanco provent not.
from the temple, and began to cut them in pieces, but, upon
Balando Pile king of Babylon made Mattaniah A Neight, in the tenth month, in the wenth
or, eunuche. Ex. 17. 15.
Te. 23. 31.
12. cc. 23. 33.
NOTES TO CHAPTER XXV.
and the king's mother, and the king's wives, and the thrones of the house of David; but that glory is here departed, for the
prince is made a most miserable prisoner, the seed royal destroyed, 67, and his "officers, and the mighty of the land: those car
the principal officers put to death, v. 18-21. 2. That it *** the holy city, there ried he into captivity from Jerusalem to Babylon. was the testimony of Israel, but that glory ia departed, for Boban'a temple
is burned to the ground, v. 9, and the sacred vessels that remained, are carried 16 And all the men of might, even seven thousand, away to Babylon, v. 13–17. Thus is Jerusalem become as a widow, Lam. 1.). and craftsmen and smiths a thousand; all that
Ichabod, Where is the glory? II. The destruction and dispersion of the rear
nant that was left iu Judah under betalinh, v. 22-26. 111. The countenance were strong and apt for war, even them the king which, after 37 years imprisonment, was given to Jebolacbin the capuve king of
Judah, v. 27--30. of Babylon brought
ND at came to passyear his father's brother king in his stead, and changed his name to Zedekiah.
the month, that Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon 18 Zedekiah was twenty and one years old when came, he, and all his host, against Jerusalem, and he began to reign; and he reigned eleven years in pitched against it; and they built forts against it Jerusalem. And his mother's name was Hámutal, round about. the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah.
2 And the city was besieged unto the eleventh 19 And he did that which was evil in the sight of year of king Zedekiah. the Lord, according to all that Jehoiakim had 3 And on the ninth day of the fourth month the done.
famine prevailed in the city, and there was no 20 For through the anger of the Lord it came to bread for the people of the land. pass in Jerusalem and Judah, until he had cast 4 And the city was broken up, and all the men them out from his presence, that Zedekiah rebelled of war fled by night, by the way of the gate between against the king of Babylon.
two walls, which is by the king's garden : (now the
Chaldees were against the city round about :) and CHAPTER XXV.
the king bwent the way toward the plain. Ever since David's time, Jerusalem had been & celebrated place; beautiful for
5 And the army of the Chaldees pursued after the situation and the Joy or the whole carth; while the look of palma lasts that king, and overtook him in the plains of Jericho: was, as here, ripening again for its ruin, in the close of the bible, we read of a and all his army were scattered from him. New Jerusalem; every thing therefore that concerns Jerusalem, is worthy our
6 So they took the king, and brought him up to regard. In this chapter, we have, I. The utter destruction of Jerusalem by the Chaldeans; the city te sleged and taken, v. 1-4, the houses buruert, v: 8, 9, the the king of Babylon to Riblah; and they 'gave wa U broken dowli, v. 10, and the inhabitants carried away into captivity, v. 11, 12. The glory of Jerusalem was, 1. That it was the royal city, there were set judgment upon him. p Jer. 37. 1. 9 Jer. 52. 1, &c.
. ? Chr. 36. 13. a 2 Chr. 36. 17, &c. Jer. 34. 2. &c. 39. 1. &c. 52. 4, &c. Ez. 94.2, &c. b Ez. 12.
spake judgment with him. second thoughts, reserved them for his own use, for wo find from their eyes the things that belong to the public peace, Belshazzar drinking wine in them, Dan. 5.2, 3.
Whom God will destroy, he infatuates. 4. He carried away a great part of Jerusalern into captivity, to weaken it, that he might effectually secure to himself the dominion of it, and prevent its revolt, and to enrich himself V.1-7. We left king Zedekiah in rebellion against the with the wealth or service of those he took away ; there had king of Babylon, (ch. 24. 20,) contriving and endeavouring to been some carried away, eight years before this, in the first shake off his yoke, when he was no way able to do it, por took year of Nebuchadnezzar, and the third of Jehoiakim ; among the right method by making God his friend first. Now here them were Daniel and his fellows. See Dan. 1, 1,2. They we have an account of the fatal consequences of that attempt. had approved themselves so well, that this politic prince co I. The king of Babylon's army laid siege to Jerusalem, v. I. veted more of them. Now he carried off, (1.) The young What should hinder them, when the country was already in king himself, and his family, (v. 15;) and we find, (ch. 25. their possession ? ch. 24. 2. They built forts against the city 27—29,) that for 37 years, he continued a close prisoner. (2.) round about, whence, by such arts of war as they then had, they All the great men, the princes and officers, whose riches were battered it; sent into it instruments of death, and kept out of kept for the owners thereof to their hurt, (Ec. 5. 13,) tempting it the necessary supports of life. Formerly, Jerusalem had the enemies to make a prey of them first. (3.) All the military been compassed with the favour of God as with a shield, but men, the mighty men of valour, (v. 14,) the mighty of the land, now their defence was departed from them, and their enemies (v. 15,) the men of might, even all that were strong and apt for surrounded them on every side. Those that by sin have pro
These could not defend themselves, and the con voked God to leave them, will find that innumerable erils will queror would not leave them to defend their country, but took compass them about. Two years this siege lasted: at first, the them away, to be employed in his service. (4.). All the army retired, for fear of the king of Egypt, (Jer. 37. 11;) but, craftsmen and smiths who made weapons of war; in taking finding him not so powerful as they thought, they soon returnthem, he did, in effect, disarm the city, according to the ed, with a resolution not to quit the city till they had made Philistines' policy, 1 Sam. 13. 19. In this captivity Ezekiel, themselves masters of it. the prophet was carried away, (Ez. 1. 1, 2,) and Mordecai, II. During this siege, the famine prevailed, (v. 3,) so that, Esth. 2. 6. This Jehoiachin was also called Jeconiah, I Chr. for a long time, they ate their bread by weight, and with care, 3. 16, and, in contempt, Coniah, Jer. 22.24, where his captivity Ez. 4. 16. Thus they were punished for their gluttony and is foretold.
excess, their fulness of bread, and feeding themselves without III. The successor whom the king of Babylon appointed in fear; at length, there was no bread for the people of the land, the room of Jehoiachin. God had written him childless, (Jer. that is, the common people, the soldiers, whereby they were 22. 30,) and therefore his uncle was intrusted with the govern- weakened, and rendered unfit for service; now they are their ment. The king of Babylon made Mattaniah king, the son of own children for want of food; see this foretold by one prophet, Josiah, and to remind him, and let all the world know, that he (Ez. 5. 10,) and bewailed by another, Lam. 4.3, &c. Jerewas his creaturo, he changed his name, and called him Zede- miah earnestly persuaded the king to surrender, (Jer. 38. 17,) kiah, v. 17. God had sometimes charged it upon his people, but his heart was hardened, 10 his destruction. They have set up kings, but not by me, (Hos. 8. 4;) and now, Ill. At length, the city was taken by storm, it was broken to punish them for thai, the king of Babylon shall have the up, (v. 4,) the besiegers made a breach in the wall, at which setting up of their kings. Those are justly deprived of their they forced their way into it; the besieged, unable any longer liberty, that use it, and insist upon it, against God's authority. to defend it, endeavoured to quit it, and make the best of their This Zedekiah was the last of the kings of Judah; the name way; many, no doubt, were put to the sword, the victorious which the king of Babylon gave him, signifies, The justice of army being much exasperated by their obstinacy. the Lord, which was a presage of the glorifying of God's justice IV. The king, his family, and all his great men, made their in his ruin.
escape in the night, by some secret passages which the be1. See how impious this Zedekiah was. Though the judg- siegers either had not discovered, or did not keep their eye ments of God upon his three immediate predecessors might upon, v. 4. But those as much deceive themselves, who think have been a warning to him not to tread in their steps, yet he to escape God's judgments, as those who think to brave them; did that which was evil, like all the rest, v. 19.
the feet of him that fees from them, will as surely fail as the 2. See how impolitic he was. As his predecessor lost his hands of him that fights against them; when God judges, he courage, so he his conduct, with his religion, for he rebelled will overcome. Intelligence was given to the Chaldeans of the against the king of Babylon, (v. 20,) whose tributary he was, king's flight, and which way he was gone, so that they soon and so, provoked him whom he was utterly unable to contend overtook him, v. 5. His guards were scattered from him, every with, and who, if he had continued true to him, would have man shifting for his own safety. Had he put himself under protected him; which was the most foolish thing he could do, God's protection, that would not have failed him now: he preand hastened the ruin of his kingdom. This came to pass sently fell into the enemies' hands, and bere we are told what through the anger of the Lord, that he might cast them out from they did with him. his presence. Note, When those that are intrusted with the 1. He was brought to the king of Babylon, and tried by a counsels of a nation, act unwisely and against their true inte-council of war, for rebelling against him who set him up, and to rest, we ought to take notice of the displeasure of God in it whom he had sworn fidelity: God and man had a quarrel with It is for the sins of a people, that God removes the speech of the him for this; see Ez. 17. 16, &c. The king of Babylon now trusty, and takes away the understanding of the aged, and hides I lay at Riblah, (which lay between Judea and Babylon,) that
war, v. 16.