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to the appellation of trade." We think such a style is entitled to the appellation of "spread,"
His description of Rio Janeiro, aided by a handsome engraving, is interesting, however, though unnecessarily spread over twenty-five large octavo pages. While we condemn this, we may be condemned ourselves, by readers who perhaps will not find it a line too long. Mr. Reynolds, as we said before, has certainly spun some interesting yarns, though not a sailor,—and his book will be read with pleasure, as all books are, which minutely describe voyages. We recollect with what interest we followed Captain Morrel, and we hope to hear from many a literary Tar before we die. The account of the Cape of Good Hope, again, is too long-twenty-eight pages. The Cape has been so often described, that this was not necessary, particularly as Mr. R. is by no means original or striking in his descriptions. Next follows the pith and manner of the book; the account of the frigate's operations at the unfortunate Quallah-Battoo. Some of the natives of this place had attacked and robbed the Friendship, 9th February 1831; killing three men. And the conspiracy, Mr. Reynolds charges, was that of the whole town, though only a dozen or two took part in it. The truth of this charge has never been investigated; for the Friendship left the island immediately, returning to Salem, without prosecuting her voyage, and the Potomac landed her forces there, on the 6th February 1832, (a year afterwards). The Potomac had 500 men on board, and they all landed, completely armed, except such as could not possibly be spared from the ship, about two o'clock in the morning, on the beach near Quallah-Battoo. While in this situation "they presented" as Mr. Reydolds says, 66 a picture that was by no means deficient in those exquisite touches which constitute the "moral sublime!" The Malays defended themselves as well as they could, but their forts and houses were easily taken, with the loss of two of the Potomac's men, one of whom killed himself in getting over a parapet.
A great many were killed on shore, and all the property was destroyed, (page 116). The number of natives killed, is afterwards stated to be 150.He apologises most earnestly for this act of severity, and dwells upon its good effects, at much length. He then describes Sumatra, (114 pages,) which description, though not showing much talent, is interesting. The writers use of language is sometimes odd. Speaking of rice, he says, "It is probable that not less than fifty millions of the human family depend for their sustenance, almost exclusively upon this farinaceous and esculent article of food." The ears of rice, he calls "Sweet bashful pledges of delicious harvest, wafting their influence to the ripening sun," (page 147). On page 148, he makes out the palm, to be a species of turpentine. On page 155, he thus sums up a chapter.
"We have thus taken a hasty and excursive view of the Island of SumaWe have seen the capacities of its soil and the varied richness of its vegitable and animal kingdom. How rich, in point of external appearance and grandeur, is the inheritance of the Malay! On the soft and rich teints of its mountains, the velvet covering of its hills, its velvet cascades, placid lakes, rapid streams,-Sumatra may challenge comparison with the world! Why has nature been so extravagant? Why be
stow on parts, where human footsteps seldom tread, all that is sublime-all that is beautiful-all that is calculated to elevate the mind which is susceptible of noble impressions! Is it solely for the Malay, the living Ishmalite of the world, that prolific nature has been so bountiful? The Malay-treacherous, cruel, and vindictive as he is,-fierce, unrelenting as the tiger of his own mountains, by which he is often destroyed,-is still a being entitled to the sympathy and compassion of the civilized world; and we cannot but pity his condition, even when his vices demand a measure of punishment at our hands. How black and damning would be the page containing an account of his wrongs from boasted christians, since the year 1510, when Albuquerque landed on his shores. For three centuries, what has been the history of Europeans trading on his coast, under the direction of heartless, grasping monopolies, but a record of oppressions, cruel exactions, and abominable in-· justice!" &c.
This passage does honor to the writer, but the fact here mentioned should have tempered his zeal, and that of our government, against these unfortunate savages. He has been all along trying to show, that they deserved no mercy for their attack on the Friendship, though it is not even asserted, that that attack was unprovoked, nor is it proved, that it was any thing more than the act of a few; not a word is said of the causes of the attack; but the general fact is admitted, that the history of the dealings of the whites with them, has been from the beginning, to this day, a history of the blackest injustice. After ages will pronounce this inglorious attack on Quallah-Battoo, to be a disgrace to the American arms. We ought to speak of it with shame, instead of boasting-and to the honor of the nation, it is so spoken of, by men of all parties. As a people professing to be brave and magnanimous, to understand justice, and to believe in the Christian religion, we ought at least to have investigated the merits of the case, and to have demanded satisfaction. It was neither brave, nor just, to take advantage of our superior power, and of the darkness of the night, against these savages. Circumstances make it probable that they had some great provocation for their violence.— The object, at all events, that our merchants might get pepper from their coast in safety, did not justify a wanton destruction of life and property, which must have cruelly involved the innocent with the guilty.
Upon the whole, this book has much fallen short of the expectations that were raised by its announcement. It is handsomely got up, with a number of beautiful engravings-and does the publishers more credit than the author. We were not aware, till we came near to the end of the book, how small a portion of it is compiled from the writers own notes. Yet we do not disapprove of making books from the journals of others, with their consent, provided it be done honestly, and with genius. We wish it were oftener done, as much useful information might be published to the world, which is now confined to the perusal of a few.
Mr. Reynolds promises us another book; an account of his own connection with the expedition to the South Seas; an expedition more honorable in its in its conception than that of the Potomac,-and connected with subjects more interesting to science, as well as commerce. We shall look for it with impatience.
EXTRACT FROM A PRIVATE LETTER.
LAY THEOLOGICAL WRITERS.
[Our friend will, we trust, excuse us for transferring the following extract from his letter, to our pages. It relates to a very interesting and important subject; and we hope its suggestions may have the good influence, both on the writer and on all our lay readers, of putting them in remembrance, that they stir up the gift that is in them.]
I wish that laymen would not only make the scriptures the subject of that careful study which belongs to the charter of their hopes, but that, from time to time, they would publish the results of their studies to the world. A clergyman and a layman read, write, and think, under very different social influences. They occupy points of view widely apart, and one is likely to see truths, and to detect errors, which the other, unless his attention had been thus directed to them, would never have observed. With the clergyman, there may be more theological learning; but with laymen, often, a more just judgment of its utility and practical applications. There is, also, a great difference in the circumstances under which they form their theological views. Students, with unripe minds, enter a theological school; they come under the immediate and daily influence of able teachers; text books of authority are put into their hands; and they are identified, before they can have opinions of their own, with a creed and a sect. Is it surprising that their minds should come out of such a process, as if they had been cast in a Chinese mould, and that, when you have heard the leading views of one from such a school, you have heard the views of all? Is it not to be expected, under such influences, that, while they remember much, they will think lit. tle? A layman is less identified with creeds and parties; his mind is not under perpetual supervision; when he reads, he reads not so much to learn what others think, as to think for himself. He may not have a tithe of the professional man's learning, but his mind is less fettered; and whether he think well or ill, his views are more likely to be his own, and new and original.
I would not say a word against theological schools, or a systematic theological education. I believe that such schools, presided over by learned and able men, are the chief safeguards, under Providence, against fanatacism and delusion. I speak only of an imperfection, such as attends every thing huAnd then, evil tendencies will do little harm, when laymen shall give that study to the scriptures, which it is their duty to give.
We have need of seeing religious truth from every point of view. It con cerns a layman as much as it does a clergyman; and I hope the time w come, when it will not be more unusual for well informed laymen to write
topics connected with religion, than on any others connected with human welfare. They will throw into theological learning a large amount of new thought and illustration. We need only to look to England, to see the value of such writings from such men. Very many among the best known, and most valuable among English theological writings, are from the pens of the laity. I need only to refer to such names as Locke, Newton, Milton, Wilber force, Hannah More, or among those now living, to the unknown author of the History of Enthusiasm.
EXTRACT FROM A LETTER, WRITTEN AFTER THE DEATH OF A FRIEND.
And now permit me, my dear P-, to express to you a few thoughts, suggested by the late death of a dear friend, in whom we were both interested.-Death, my friend, is appalling to all hearts-but especially so, to the young, who are untried in life's troubles and miseries-the morning sun of whose existence, gilds all the future with pure sunshine.
It requires an uncommon strength of mind and character, to be able to meet that, with resignation and composure, which is to blot out forever the pleasant scene around, and cause all the bright happiness and joy, anticipated for the future, to become a sealed book forever, to the senses.
Yet we have seen one, my friend-young, beautiful-surrounded by every thing which could make life desirable—whose future was tinged with the light of joy-giving hope-and we have seen her meet death calmly. With a full consciousness, that her days on earth were numbered and few, she has conversed on the subject of her departure, as composedly and happily, as though she were about to take an earthly journey, to pleasant scenes and places.
There is something morally sublime in this triumph of the spirit over the world and death; and those who stood around the dying bed of our deceased friend, must have felt an elevation above the things of earth-must have felt the stirring of their immortality within them.
The sins of our departed friend, seemed to form no part of her character; but were stains upon her pure soul, which she hastened to wipe out as foreign and polluting. Each day her heart was laid open before her Maker, and its sins repented of, before slumber settled upon her eyelids. Of course, such a heart was pure, and loved the pure, the beautiful, and the good-and of such is the Kingdom of Heaven.
She had never thought much of Religion, as a separate and distinct thing, from the ordinary transactions of life-but she had found, and become imbued, with the true spirit of practical religion, or she never could have met her trials as she did. She was in the constant exercise and practice of the highest christian virtues: and when that last dread hour came-and she was to bid adieu to all her friends, and close her eyes on the scenes of earth, forever-it was evident that the spirit of God was with her, sustaining her soul in the struggle.
The sweet smile which lingered on her face, after the spirit had taken its flight, was an earnest, that she had drank deep of that fountain of living waters, of which, he who drinketh shall never thirst.-Can we doubt that such a spirit has joined the company of the just made perfect, though no creed had been signed, or public confession made of that faith, which shone out in all her actions? Heaven forbid! that the beginning of a belief, that these things were essential to her soul's salvation, should obtrude itself upon my mind; for it would drive me into the cold and barren regions of scepticism.
No! those who stood around the dying bed of our friend, and saw the peaceful smile of joy which lighted her features, as the lamp of life was extinguished, feel an assurance, which nothing can shake, of the happy immortality of her soul.
Death, in that hour, was robbed of his terrors-and we felt it was but the ushering in the spirit to a glorious and happy Eternity-the swallowing up of the mortal, in immortality.
God grant, that all who witnessed that scene, may profit by the lesson taught; and may His Almighty arm sustain the bereaved in the trial which now overshadows them—and in all the trials and sufferings, to which he may call them here below-'till their race on earth is run-and their souls shall wake in the land of the Blessed, to join the spirit of our friend, amid the joys of Heaven.
U. T. H.
DIED, in Philadelphia, on the 6th day of July, JOHN MARSHALL, chief justice of the supreme court of the United States-in the 80th year of his age.
Every man, when he dies, leaves his character, as a legacy to the public in which he lived and acted. This legacy is rich or poor, according to the elevation, or degredation, of the character which constitutes it, and according to the spirit in which it is received and improved.
In this point of view, the venerable chief justice, has not only rendered inestimable benefits to his country, by the active service of his long life-but has left her the wealth which he has been, during that time, acquiring—a wealth which cannot be taken away-even a high and irreproachable character.
In him, we have lost one of the great champions and apostles of the freedom of mankind. He has, during his whole life, devoted himself, body and mind to the establishment, defence, and elucidation of the great principles of human liberty, protected by law. As a soldier in the army of the revolution, he poured out his blood in the establishment of his country's freedom-as the statesman, he defended her rights in her councils-as a judge, he has been a constant fountain, from whence, in all time, "calm or convulsed," has flowed the pure waters of truth and wisdom.
For more than thirty years, he has ministered, as the great high priest, ir the temples of his country's justice-and most faithfully has he discharge