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Christ had delivered it from destruction, and had illumined it with the light of the gospel, it did not ac* knowledge him, but had spurned and rejected him. For it is agreeable to the Hebrew language, that in such forms of speech the words to make, and to create, should have the same meaning as to make anew, and recreate; because that language is destitute of what are called compound verbs. The second interpretation is, that the future world, which we expect, is, as to us, made by Christ; as it is also called future in respect to us, though now present to Christ and the angels.

What answer do you make to the third testimony, Coloss. i. 16, “By him were all things created, &c.?"

Besides that the apostle speaks here of Christ as an intermediate or secondary cause, the verb to create is used in Scripture not only with reference to the old, but also to the new creation. Of this you have an instance, Ephes. ii. 10, “For we are his workmanship, CREATED (XT10 beytes) in Christ Jesus unto good works:” and a little further on (ver. 15) “ to make” or “create” (xtion) in himself of twain one new man.' So likewise James i. 18, which is commonly understood to refer to the new creation, “ Of his own will begat he us with the word of truth, that we should be a kind of first fruits of his creatures" (xTIGMATwv). Moreover, that the expressions, “all things in heaven and earth,” are not here used for all objects whatever, appears not only from the words of Paul further on, (ver. 20,) where he states that “God by him (Christ) reconciled all things unto himself, whether

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they be things in earth or things in heaven;" but also from this very passage itself; wherein the apostle does not say that heaven and earth were created, but only all those things which are in heaven and earth.

What then do you understand by this testimony?

That all things in heaven and on earth are ordered by Christ, and by him transformed into a new state or condition ; and this, because God has appointed him to be the head both of angels and of men, who before acknowledged God alone as their sovereign ; whence has followed a new order of things among all beings endued with intelligence '7.

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17 That this passage of the epistle to the Colossians ought to be interpreted of the new creation, may be proved by the three following arguments : First, A reason is here assigned, why Christ is called “the first born of every creature.” Now, since the first born is of the number of those of whom he is called the first born; and as Christ cannot, in reference to the old creation, be understood to be the first among created beings, many generations having intervened between Adam and him

i it follows, that he must be so designated in reference to the new creation, which commenced from him ;-and to this creation the reason of this designation is accommodated.

Secondly, What are here stated to be created by Christ are not heaven and earth and all the things which they contain, conformably to the language used elsewhere, when the old creation is spoken of, but only rational natures ; as being alone susceptible of a new creation.

Thirdly, The very enumeration of the things created by him sufficiently shows that the new creation is here spoken of. For with respect to “ things in heaven,” the angels are indeed said to have been created by him, but under the names of “ thrones, and dominions, and principalities, and powers ;" which are not names of simple existences, but of dignities with which the Lord honours them; just as we say that a king, a prince, or a consul, has been created, not when he is born, but when he is so de

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What answer do you make to the fourth testimony, Heb. i. 2, “ By whom he made the worlds ?”

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signated. What is comprehended in the creation of “ things in earth,” and in what manner it is effected, may be seen from the eighteenth verse, where the church of Christ alone is mentioned, “He is the head of the body, the church :” and by this also the new creation is connected with Christ in the nineteenth and twentieth verses, since God is said to fill all things by him, and by him to have “reconciled all things to himself,” he “having made peace through the blood of his cross,” between those things which are in heaven and those which are on earth— things which cannot be referred to the old creation. The reader may compare with this the parallel passage, Ephes. i. 10,

“ That in the dispensation of the fulness of times, he might gather together in one all things in Christ, both which are in heaven, and which are on earth.” It may not be foreign from the purpose to have stated the above reasons for the better understanding of the real meaning of this text. M. RUARUS.

[On the above note Schlichtingius remarks]—I concur in opinion that it may be of use to state here the reasons above given, except that in the third reason, those titles of dignities should appear to be inserted not to intimate that Christ conferred those dignities on the angels—for whence does this appear ?--but to show that the highest and chief angels are not exempted from the creation made by him, since they also are obliged to acknowledge him for their head. It is in the (ανακεφαλαιωσει) « gathering together of all things in Christ,” that this creation chiefly consists : Ephes. i. 10. I. Schlich

That this creation was made by Christ as Man is admitted by Athanasius, Cyril, Fulgentius, Salmero, Arias Montanus, &c. Piscator's observations on this passage may also be consulted. A. WissowATIUS.

Procopius Gazæus, in his observations on the first chapter of Genesis, thus interprets this passage of the epistle to the Colossians—“Omnia per illum condita sunt, sive quæ in terra sunt, sive quæ in cælis: id est, RENOVATA, et in integrum restiTUTA. “ By him were all things created that are in heaven and that are in earth :—that is, RENOVATED, and RESTORED TO their pristine state.” Grotius likewise writes to the same purpose; and his observations should by all means be consulted,

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TINGIUS.

I observe, that what is here explicitly stated, not that Christ made the worlds, but that God made them by him ; may be asserted in reference to mankind, or understood of the world to come. And in what sense both the human race and the world to come may be said to have been made through Christ, I have already explained in my observations on the second testimony, John i. 10. That the original creation of this world is not intended here, is evident from this, that the same writer asserts that God made the worlds by him “ whom he had appointed heir of all things;" but it is evident this was no other than the MAN JESU:S. Besides, the very order of the words proves that these worlds were made subsequently to his being appointed the heir of all things; and that this was not done till after his resurrection, is declared in several passages of the holy scriptures'8.

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See also his prolegomena to the gospels, and his annotations on Ephes. i. 10; ii. 10; iii. 9; James i. 18; Rev. iii. 14; iv. 11. Grotius remarks that Chrysostom explains this passage to mean that the world was created on account of Christ. The interpretation given of it by John Simplicius, in his Articles of Faith, $ 6, may also be consulted. This agrees with the explanation which Schlichtingius has proposed in his observations on the introduction to John's gospel, inserted in his commentary on 1 Pet. i, 20.0 B. Wissowatius.

• [Modern Unitarians concur with the authors of this Catechism, and the above annotators, in interpreting this passage of the new moral creation effected by Jesus Christ, by means of his gospel. The reader may consult, on this subject, in addition to the authorities above referred to, an admirable essay on the creation of all things by Jesus Christ, inserted in Commentaries and Essays, vol. ii. p. 9; and also a Discourse by the Rev. Russell Scott of Portsmouth, on the same subject. Transl.] 18 Grotius remarks that in his opinion this passage may with.

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What answer do you make to the fifth testimony, from Psalm cii. 25, &c. quoted Heb. i. 10, 11, 12, “ Thou, Lord, in the beginning hast laid the foundation of the earth,” &c. ?

To this testimony I reply, that these words of the Psalmist, which were spoken of the one supreme God, are by this author applied to Christ only so far as they pertain to the scope of his argument. For it must be observed that the discourse in this testimony refers not to one subject orly, but to three distinct subjects :- First, the creation of the heavens and the earth'; secondly, the destruction of all created things ; and thirdly, the endless duration of God. Now that the writer does not refer the first of these to Christ is hence evident, that he proposes to himself, in this chapter, to prove the pre-eminence of Christ,—not that pre-eminence by which he would himself be the supreme God, but that which through the divine favour he“ obtained by inheritance," and whereby he was made “better than the angels,”

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out harshness be rendered, propter quem mundum fecit, whose account he made the world.” And he shows in his commentary on this place, and on Heb. i. 10, that it was understood and believed among the Jews that the world had been created with a view to the Messiah. This interpretation would be more accordant with the bearing of the apostle's observar tions, and better harmonize with the preceding context:--that the son of God was for this reason appointed the heir of all things, that God had for, or with a view to, him, made the agès, or the world. For the Greek preposition die with a genitive case may be rendered for, or “ WITH A VIEW TO," as appears from a passage of Gregory Nazianzen, which, among others, is usually quoted as an example in the Le cons. Ai'say onnel you ερωτοτητα Θεος υποση. Β. WissowATIUs.

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