Images de page
PDF
ePub

PLAN OF INSTRUCTION.

EVERY enlightened teacher, with reasoning and taste, may easily create for himself a system suited to his own turn of mind, and adapted to the intellects under his care. We do not therefore here intend to prescribe any exclusive method, but merely to indicate what seems to us the most appropriate way of using this work, and to guide the student through his labour.

In the first place, the lesson is given out by the teacher, and explained.

PREPARATION IN THE CLASS. This preparation is the joint work of master and pupil. The RULES are read, expounded if necessary, and illustrated by EXAMPLES, until the teacher is sure they are understood. The FRENCH EXERCISES are read aloud by the teacher and repeated by the pupil ; this will insure a good pronunciation. It now remains for the pupil to study the lesson on his own account.

THE PUPIL’S WORK OUT OF THE CLASS. His first care should be to study the RULES until he is familiar with them, and commit to memory everything prescribed by the teacher. The FRENCH EXERCISE comes next. The pupil must learn the meaning of each sentence ; and for this purpose he will find assistance in the ENGLISH TRANSLATION given at the end of the book ; then read it in French, pronouncing every word for himself, and aloud if possible ; he must next take notice of the words connected with the rules of the lesson. The QUESTIONNAIRE must be prepared in the same way. The pupil may now, if required, re-translate the English translation and questions into French ; and, lastly, take the French QUESTIONNAIRE and exercise himself in forming from memory the proper answer to each question, after which

xii

he will find it easy to reply to the same questions asked vivâ voce during the class-hour. The ENGLISH EXERCISE with interlinear French should always be written, as a test that the rules have been understood.

HEARING OF THE LESSON.

The RULES, EXAMPLES, etc., are repeated. The FRENCH EXERCISE is then translated, read, and parsed. The ENGLISH TRANSLATION may be re-translated also into French at sight. Lastly, the QUESTIONS may be asked, which the pupil will find no difficulty in answering, as the reading of the question generally contains in itself the terms required in the reply.

The English exercise written in French should be corrected, read over in French, and, if the teacher thinks it proper, given once more to be written for the following lesson.

FREE EXERCISES

ON ALL THE RULES OF GRAMMAR, TRANSLATION FROM ENGLISH INTO FRENCH.

In these exercises we have given, in notes, the translation of those passages only which the pupil could not be expected to translate properly, because of their idiomatic turn ; but it will be found useful, and almost indispensable, that the teacher should give previously all the explanations and help which the pupils may require, so as to add to the interest of their study and the rapidity of their progress.

1 In a large class it is advisable to make the pupils close their books, and to give them the English vivá voce.

FRENCH GRAMMAR.

INTRODUCTION.

THE ALPHABET. 1. The French Alphabet is composed of twenty-five letters (six vowels and nineteen consonants), viz.,

A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, ah, , , , é, ej, ,' ash, ee, jee, kah, ell, m, n,

0, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, X, Y, Z.

0, , qu,9 err, e88, , u, , eeks, i-grec, zède. W occurs only in words borrowed from the English or German language; such as wagon, Walter Scott, l'île de Wight, Westphalie.

VOWELS. 2. The vowels (les voyelles) are a, e, i, o, u, and y. They may be either long or short.

EXAMPLES a is long in pâte, paste. ... short in patte, paw. e , bêche, spade. ... , brèche, breach. ¿ , épître, epistle. ... , petite, small. 0 1 apôtre, apostle. ... , mode, fashion. u , flûte, flute. ...

hutte, hut. y is sounded like i after a consonant; as, mystère, pronounce mistère ; but it is sounded like double i after a vowel; as, royal, pronounce roi-ial; paysan, pronounce pai-isan.

1 G and I have the same sound as s in the English word pleasure.

2 The French u has no corresponding sound in the English language; it is much the same as in the Scotch word gude--this sound is produced by placing the lips in a circular shape, as if for whistling.

DIPHTHONGS.

3. The combination of vowels one with another forms the compound vowels and diphthongs, the principal of which

are

ai,
au,

as in Calais, maire.

Pau, chaud.
, Seine, reine.
, fiacre, piano.
, jeudi, feu.
, poêle, moelle.
o toi, minois.
» Boulogne, chou.

NASAL SOUNDS.

sounds.

4. The combination of the vowels with n and m form the nasal sounds; they are

Nearest English
am, an jambe, plan, fanfan, ?

ç haunt.
em, en décembre, souvent,' $
im, in mo

robin, impie,
ут, уп

nymphe, feinte, pain, { strength.
ain, eins

chien, rien, Amiens,
ien
om, on ballon, ombrage, wrong.
oin loin, point,
un, um brun, humble,
eun à-jeun,

hung.

1 The termination ent is not sounded in the third person plural of verbs ; as, ils chantent, ils partirent, ils différent, ils négligent, although it is to be sounded in words with the same spelling, but not verbs, such as negligent, different.

CONSONANTS. 5. Peculiarities in the pronunciation of consonants : c is sounded like g in second, seconder, secondement.

d at the end of a word is pronounced like t when the next word begins with a vowel or an h mute.

f is not sounded in the plural of beuf, auf, and nerf; thus, beufs (bæus), oeufs (ous), nerfs (ners); nor in cerf, clef, chef-d'ouvre, boeuf-gras.

gn has sometimes a liquid sound, as in Bourgogne, agneau ; it is sounded hard in inexpugnable, diagnostique, etc.

h is either mute, as in l'homme, l'harmonie; or aspirated, as in le héros, le hameau.

l is silent in gentil, fils, etc.

I after an i has a liquid sound in soleil, billard, feuille, etc.; but not in ville, illustre.

p is not sounded before t or s, as in baptême, temps.

p (final) is mute in the present infinitive of the first conjugation; as aimer, chanter, and in jardinier, boulanger, volontiers, etc.

s is sounded like , between two vowels, as in maison, visible. It is sounded in the word tous when after its noun, or alone; thus, pronounce the sin les hommes sont tous mortels ; do not pronounce it in tous les hommes, etc.

t has two sounds, its simple sound, as in ton, tambour ; and the sound of c, as in nation, Vénitien, démocratie.

th is always pronounced like t. Ex., thème, pathétique.

w is pronounced like single v in wagon (vagon), Westphalie (Vestphalie); as ou in whig (ouig), whisky (ouisky); as s in Law (Lass).

a has the five following sounds :ks as in maxime, extase. I k as in excès, exciter. gs , examen, exemple. 2 . deuxième, dixième.

88 » Bruxelles, Auxerre. | . 2 is not generally sounded, unless before a vowel or h mute; as, venez ici ; allez chez eux.

« PrécédentContinuer »