State Terrorism and the United States: From Counterinsurgency to the War on Terrorism

Couverture
Zed Books, 2004 - 254 pages
This is a chilling analysis of the immediate predecessor of the US war on terrorism: its counter-insurgency policy during the Cold War. The US promised a low level response uniquely tailored to assisting third world states to respond to local insurgencies seeking social change. Drawing on the reports of Truth Commissions from six countries, Guatemala, El Salvador, Argentina, Chile, South Africa, and Indonesia, Frederick Gareau examines a harrowing array of human rights abuses by US-supported dictators, governments and paramilitary groups against their own peoples. He shows that state and para-statal forces committed by far the greatest proportion of violence, and that these state repressions were perpetrated with Washington's full awareness, complicity, and military and politico-diplomatic support, if not at its instigation.
 

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Table des matières

Introduction
11
PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES
12
The Post 911 Rush to Pin the Terrorist Label
13
A Definition of Terrorism
14
Monitoring Terrorism
15
THE CONTENTS OF THIS BOOK
16
The Central Questions of This Research
18
A Practical Reason for Examining the Charge Against Washington
19
Pretoria and the Inkatha
113
The ANC and PAC
117
The Guilt of Civil Society
119
APPLYING TERROR
120
Detention Without Trial
121
Torture
122
WASHINGTONS POLICY TOWARD SOUTH AFRICA
125
From Truman to Carter
126

Assigning Guilt for the Support of Terrorism
20
THE SCHOOLS OF THE AMERICAS AND TERROR IN EL SALVADOR
22
THE SEMINAL REVOLT AND MASSACRE
26
WASHINGTON TEACHES AND UNDERWRITES COUNTERINSURGENCY
28
Counterinsurgency Ideology
29
Counterinsurgency Manuals Prescribe the Use of Terrorism
30
THE UN TRUTH COMMISSION ON EL SALVADOR
32
The Organization of the Truth Commission
34
Government Terrorism and Repression Not Guerrilla Warfare
35
Death Squads
36
The Rape and Killing of Nuns
38
THE AFTERMATH
40
CONCLUSION
41
GUATEMALA A COUNTRY INCOMMUNICADO
43
ASSIGNING BLAME FOR VIOLENCE IN GUATEMALA
45
The Silence of the Terrorized
47
COUNTERINSURGENCY TRAINING
48
Training for Terror and Massacres
52
Learning the Step of Death
53
THE CHARGE OF GENOCIDE
57
The Intent to Commit Genocide
58
THE KEY ROLE OF THE ARMY AND INTELLIGENCE AGENCIES
60
WASHINGTONS COMPLICITY
61
THE AFTERMATH
63
An Ongoing Atmosphere of Impunity
64
CONCLUSION
66
CHILE THE FORGOTTEN PAST IS FULL OF MEMORY
67
DENYING SOCIAL CHANGE THROUGH ELECTORAL PROCESSES
68
Making the Chilean Economy Scream
69
Strengthening the Chilean Military
70
The Coup of September 111973
71
THE CHILEAN NATIONAL COMMISSION ON TRUTH AND RECONCILIATION
72
The Victims of the Repression
73
INTELLIGENCE AGENCIES THE COUNTERINSURGENCY DOCTRINE AND TORTURE
76
Evaluating the Extent of Washingtons Complicity
78
Counterinsurgency Doctrine
79
CNI The Successor to DINA
80
Terror and Torture by the Pinochet Regime
81
Internal Support for the Dictatorship
83
Washingtons Reaction to State Terrorism in Chile
85
The General Visits Shops Has an Operation Is Charged With Murder Then Returns Home
90
CONCLUSION
91
ARGENTINAS DIRTY WAR
93
REPORT OF THE ARGENTINE COMMISSION ON THE DISAPPEARED
94
ARGENTINIAN STATE TERRORISM
96
Class War
98
The Systematic Sowing of Terror
99
The Government Tortures and Disappears Its Victims
100
WASHINGTONS SUPPORT FOR STATE TERRORISM IN ARGENTINA
102
Military Support
103
Teaching Them How We Think
104
Diplomatic Support
105
THE AFTERMATH
106
Some Closing Remarks for the Chapter
107
SOUTH AFRICA APARTHEID AND TERROR
109
THE TRUTH AND RECONCILIATION COMMISSION REPORT
111
From Repression to Criminal Activity
131
THE IMPACT OF PRETORIAS TOTAL STRATEGY ON NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES
136
WASHINGTON SOUTH AFRICA AND WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION
142
BRIEF COMMENTS ON THE CHAPTER
144
Indonesia Three Series of Massacres
145
A Political Party Falls Victim to Massacres
148
Welcoming the Suharto Regime
150
THE FIRST EAST TIMOR MASSACRES
152
The Santa Cruz Massacre
155
Some Conclusions
158
CONCLUSION
161
THE ROOTS DOCTRINE AND SOME NOTORIOUS INSTANCE OF US SUPPORT FOR DICTATORS
162
NICARAGUA THE SOMOZAS AND THE SANDANISTAS FROM COOLlDGE TO BUSH SR
165
FROM KENNEDY TO BUSH SR
168
FROM CARTER TO BUSH SR
169
CONCLUSION
171
THE ROOTS OF THE WAR ON TERRORISM WASHINGTONS POLICIES IN THE MIDDLE EAST
172
OUR SOB
174
The First Persian Gulf War
175
WMD For Use Against Iran and the Kurds
177
Washington Turns on Saddam
179
WASHINGTONS COMPLICITY IN ISRAELI STATE TERRORISM
181
The Ethnic Cleansing of the Palestinians
182
Violations of the Rights of the Palestinians
183
The Israeli Nuclear Bomb
185
Washingtons Support for Israel
186
The Road Map
188
CONCLUSION
189
THE WAR ON TERRORISM
190
Upgrading US Warmaking Capacity
191
NO END IN SIGHT
193
A Public Assault on the Rights of Detainees
197
Pakistan and Terrorism
198
Uzbekistan
199
The Treatment of Arab and Muslim Immigrants in the US
200
THE THIRD PERSIAN GULF WAR
201
Protest by the Public and by International Lawyers
202
Religious and Ethical Opposition
203
World Public Opinion and the War
205
Operation Iraqi Freedom
206
In Search of Weapons of Mass Destruction
207
Postwar Chaos
208
State and Local Government
211
THE ROOT DOCTRINE GETS A FACELIFT
212
Algeria and the Islamic Salvation Front
213
Colombia
214
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
216
Washington as the Supplier of Arms to the World and Aid to the Violators of Human Rights
219
Quantifying the Relation of Military Aid to Human Rights Violations
220
WASHINGTONS POLICY TOWARD THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT
222
IN SEARCH OF AN APPROPRIATE RESPONSE TO TERRORISM
225
The Open Espousal of Aggression
227
A TRUTH COMMISSION FOR WASHINGTON
230
ENDNOTES
232
INDEX
250
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À propos de l'auteur (2004)

Frederick H. Gareau is full professor at Florida State University and author of The United Nations and Other International Institutions: A Critical Analysis (2001) as well as an extensive number of articles and conference reports.

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