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NOTES.

For further information on Grammatical and Philological points,

the student is referred to G. E. Fasnacht's Synthetic French Grammar for Schools, and to the Grammar and Glossary of the French Language in the Seventeenth Century, published separately in this series.

ACT 1.-FIRST SCENE.

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1. 2. et vous reposez, for 'et reposez-vous. A construc

tion frequent in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, when one imperative follows another. Cp.

* Battez-moi plutôt et me laissez' (33, 6). 2. 2. voilà qui = 'voilà quelque chose qui,' an elliptic ex

pression. 4. de nouveau. This idiomatic use of 'de' after such

phrases as 'quelque chose,' rien,' etc., is derived

from the Latin genitive, e.g. Quid novi ? Nihil novi. 9. Vous l'allez entendre. According to modern use, the

pronoun governed by an infinitive depending upon another verb is generally placed immediately before the infinitive, e.g. Vous allez l'entendre.' In the seventeenth century it was usually placed before the

first or semi-auxiliary verb. 14. comme il nous le faut, "after our own hearts.' 15. Ce nous est une douce rente que. "A nice little

income for us, this M. Jourdain.' In such sentences

que’ is the complement of ‘ce,' the second clause being really the subject of the verb. This constructionis most useful for the purpose of marking emphasis. Cp. (3, 3), 'Ce sont des douceurs exquises que des louanges éclairées.'

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2. 16. galanterie, 'love-making.' 20. se connût ... aux choses. In the phrase "se con.

naître à' (or 'en') = “to be a good judge of a thing,' the verb 'connaître' is really intransitive, and the reflexive pronoun has been coupled with it incorrectly,

as in the verbs 'se taire,' s'écrier,' etc. qu'il ne fait, not 'qu'il ne le fait.' Here the verb

faire’ is used simply to avoid the repetition of the

first verb, like our English ‘to do.' 25. je me repais . . . 'I revel somewhat in glory;' literally,

“I feast, or feed upon.'
28. un supplice assez fâcheux, 'a somewhat painful form

of torture.' The word 'fâcheux (Latin, fastidium
'disgust, loathing') is now only used in a rather
trivial sense = 'tiresome, awkward.' For the de-
gradation of meaning cp. gène,' 'ennui,' etc., and

see Trench, The Study of Words, p. 103.

se produire = 'se faire voir,' se faire connaître.' 29. essuyer-1. “To wipe up ;' 2. Metaphorically, as here,

to endure,' 'to put up with.' Čp. Elle a essuyé toutes mes humeurs et toutes mes lassitudes' (Mme.

de Maintenon). 30. ne m'en parlez point- :-a colloquialism—'Don't tell

me,' repelling beforehand a supposed objection. 31. qui soient ... qui sachent. The relative is followed

by the subjunctive because the clause expresses a hope or expectation, and not a positive fact. Cp. in Latin

the subjunctive after 'qui' = 'qui talis est ut.' 33. chatouillantes, chatouiller, lit. "to tickle ;' hence,

to affect pleasantly, to delight' (cp. 'gratter'). Here used absolutely. The word was used even in tragedy, e.g. “Ces noms de roi des rois et de chef de la Grèce, Chatouillaient de mon cæur l'orgueilleuse faiblesse’Racine, Iphig. I. i. Cp. Tennyson, The Princess ' And secret laughter tickled all my

soul.' 34. régaler de dédommager de ..,' 'make ample

atonement...' The usual meaning of the word is 'to treat.' It is probably derived from re' and * galer,' an obsolete word (whence 'gala 'and 'galant)

to enjoy oneself.'

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3. 3. ce sont des douceurs . Cp. 2, 15.

5. je les goûte, 'I enjoy them.'
8. encens, 'praise,' 'flattery.' From the use of 'incense'

in religious ceremonies.
Des louanges toutes pures, mere praise, and

nothing else.' 'Ne mettent point un homme à son aise' is equivalent in meaning to the preceding expres

sion, 'ne fait pas vivre.' 11. louer avec les mains, to praise ' with the hands,'-i.e.

not with the lips only,—does not mean 'to applaud,'

but 'to pay.' Trans. ' purse in hand.' 12. lumières, culture.' 14. il a du discernement, etc., 'He has a keen critical

eye-in his purse ; his praises are-coin of the realm.' 17. grand seigneur éclairé. This is Count Dorante. 21. l'intérêt, 'lucre.' 22. honnête homme, 'gentleman' or 'man of honour'—

not honest man.' 24. fort bien, 'readily enough.' 34. Le voilà, 'Here he is.' “Voici' and 'voilà' are formed

from the imperative of 'voir,' and the adverbs 'ci,' là.' They are equivalent, therefore, to 'vois ici,' vois là. In Rabelais and writers of the sixteenth century, the tmesis 'voy me ci,' 'voy me là’ is not

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uncommon.

SECOND SCENE.

4. 2. drôlerie—a contemptuous term.

11. c'est que, 'the fact is ...' 13. ne mettre jamais. The usual construction would be

'ne jamais mettre.' Here stronger emphasis is marked by placing the negative after the verb. The separation of the two parts of the negative with the infini

tive was not uncommon in the seventeenth century. 17. qu'on ne m'ait apporté, “ Till they have brought me.'

This construction of 'que. ne' with the subjunctive was much commoner in the seventeenth century than it is at the present day. It is derived from the

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Latin quin followed by the subj. Cp. 'Nul Israëlite ne pouvait être roi qu'il ne fût de la maison de David, —' unless he belonged ...' 'Je ne dis rien: qu'il ne me contredise'-'I can say nothing without

his contradicting me. 4. 20. équipé, rigged out,' a vulgar expression. 23. indienne, 'chintz.' It seems to have been somewhat

of a luxury at the time. 5. 8. entr'ouvrant. Notice the force of 'entre' in com

position : 1. (as here) In the sense of 'half,''partly ;' cp. 'entrebaîller, entrevoir' (to catch a glimpse of); 2. With reflexive verbs, 's'entretuer' to kill one another ; 3. At intervals, e.g. “entremêler,'entrecouper,' 'entrelarder.' N.B. - The 'e' is only elided in

composition. 9. haut-de-chausses, 'breeches.' The 'bas-de-chausses'

were the stockings-now simply bas.' camisole, a kind of ‘jersey.' The word is of Spanish

origin, a diminutive of 'camisa,' Fr. chemise. 12. galant, elegant,' 'smart.' Vaugelas (1647) defines

the word thus : C'est un composé où il entre du je ne sais quoi, ou de la bonne grâce, de l'air de la cour, de l'esprit, de la civilité, de la courtoisie et de la gaieté,

le tout sans contrainte, sans affectation et sans vice.' 23. Je voudrais bien. 'I should very much like.' The

adverb 'bien’is employed in a number of cases, giving shades of meaning, such as are expressed in Greek by particles, e.g. 'Je le crois bien,' 'I should rather think so ;''Je le veux bien,' 'I am perfectly willing ;' 'Je m'inquiète bien de cela,' “ As if I cared a straw about that;' Je vous l'avais bien dit !''Didn't I tell you

so,' etc. 29. écolier. The word 'écolier,' unlike the word "scholar'

in English, has degenerated in French, and even at that time conveyed an idea of disparagement in

popular language. 32. abuse, 'mislead,' deceive.' `Abuser de ...', to ill

use,' 'take an undue advantage.' en savent. •En,' that is, 'about the point in ques

tion.' • En,' though often not translated into Eng. lish, is only apparently redundant.

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