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who hath thus testified of the 9 I John, your brother and word of God, and of the testi.companion in the affliction, and mony given to Jesus Christ, kingdom, and patience of Jesus even whatever things he saw. 3 Christ, was in the island which Happy is he who readeth, and is called Patmos, for the word those who hear, the words of of God, and (for) the testimony this prophecy, and keep the of Jesus Christ]. 10 I was in things written in it: for the the spirit, on the Lord's day; time is near.

and heard behind me a loud 4 John to the seven churches voice, as of a trumpet, 11 sayin Asia; favour be to you, and ing, “ What thou seest, write peace, from him who is, and in a book, and send it to the who was, and who is to come; seven churches; to Ephesus, and from the seven spirits and to Smyrna, and to Pergawhich (are] before his throne; 5 | mus, and to Thyatira, and to and from Jesus Christ who is the Sardis, and to Philadelphia, faithful witness, the first-born and to Laodicea.” from the dead, and the prince 12 And I turned to see whence of the kings of the earth : to the voice came which spake to him who loveth us, and hath me: and, when I had turned, I washed us from our sins in his saw seven golden candlesticks; own blood, 6 and hath made 13 and in the midst of the us a kingdom of priests to his [seven] candlesticks, one like God and Father; to him be the Son of man, clothed with glory and dominion to the ages a garment down to the feet, of ages. Amen.

and girt about his breast with 7 Behold, he will come with a golden girdle. 14 And his clouds; and every eye will see head, and his hair were white, him, and those also who pierced as white wool, or snow: and him; and all the tribes of the his eyes were as a flame of fire; earth will lament because of 15 and his feet like fine brass, him. Even so, Amen. 8“ I am as if they had been purified in Alpha and Omega,"* saith the a furnace; and his voice as the Lord God, who is, who was, sound of many waters : 16 and and who is to come, the Al. he had in his right hand seven mighty.

stars : and out of his mouth

between St. John's gospel and epistle, but the Revelation is quite different in all these respects, without any resemblance or similitude. 5. That the Greek of the gospel and epistle is pure and correct, but that of the Revelation has barbarims and solecisms. Dionysius's own opinion is, that the Revelation was written by some holy and inspired person named John, but who that John was he does not know: he might be John the Elder, said to have resided for some time at Ephesus, in Asia.” Dr. Lardner, having examined the arguments of Dionysius at large, and stated the opinions of other learned men, concludes with his usual candour, " I must acknowledge that the Revelation, when compared with the apostle's uniquestioned writings, has an unlike ness not easy to be accounted for." Lardner's Works, vol. iii. p. 130. The principal authors who have attempted the interpretation of this difficult prophecy are Joseph Mede, Sir Isaac Newton Waple, Daubuz, Vitringa, Lowman, Bp. Newton. See also Mr. Tower's Illust. of Proptee Abp. Newcome's and Dr. Priestley's Notes upon the Scriptures, and Evanson's Reflectia upon the State of Religion in Christendom in the 19th Century.” Im. Ver. note.

* Gr. TO A «Qi TO S2: the Alpha and the Omega: i.e. the first and the last letter of the Greek alphabet; equivalent to the beginning and the end.

the seven

went a sharp two-edged sword: whence thou art fallen, and reand his countenance was as the form, and do thy first works : sun shineth in his strength. 17 or else I will come to thee And, having seen him, I fell at [quickly), and will remove thy his feet as dead. And he put candlestick out of its place, his right hand upon me, say- unless thou reform. 6 But this ing, “ Fear not : I am the first, praise thou hast, that thou and the last; 18 and he who hatest he deeds of the Nicollived, and became dead; and, aitans, which I also hate.' 7 behold, I live to the ages of He who hath an ear, let him the ages, and have the keys of hear what the spirit saith to death and of hades. *

the churches. To him who over19 Write therefore the things cometh I will give to eat from which thou hast seen, and the the fruit of the tree of life

things which now are, and the which is in the paradise of my : things which are about to oc. God. cur. 20 As to the mystery of

8 « And to the messenger of stars which thou the church in Smyrna write; sawest in my right hand, and These things saith the first 48 to the seven golden can- and the last, who was dead, and dlesticks; the seven stars are is alive: 9 I know thy (works, the messengers of the seven and] affliction, and poverty, churches, and the seven can- (yet thou art rich,) and the dlesticks are the seven churches. blasphemy of those who say

Ch. II. 1 “ TO the messen- that they are Jews, and are not, ger of the church in Ephe- but are the synagogue of the sus write; · These things saith adversary.t 10 Fear none of he who holdeth the seven stars those things which thou art in his right hand, who walketh about to suffer. Behold, the in the midst of the seven golden impostor is about to cast some candlesticks: 2 I know thy of you into prison, that ye may works, and [thy) labour, and be proved; and ye will have thy patience, and that thou affliction for ten days. Be thou canst not bear those who are faithful unto death, and I will evil: and thou hast tried those give to thee the crown of life,' who say that they are apostles, 11 He who hath an ear, let him and are not; and hast found hear what the spirit saith to them false: 3 and hast patience, the churches. He who overand hast borne much for the cometh shall not be hurt by the sake of my name, and hast not second death. fainted. 4' Nevertheless I have 12 « And to the messenger something against thee, because of the church in Pergamus thou hast relinquished thy first write: These things saith he love. 5 Remember therefore I who hath the sharp two-edged

*;. e. the grave, or the place of the dead : literally, the unseen or hidden place.
† Jewish adversaries of the gospel, see ch. iii. 9.

sword : 13 I know (thy works, , thy wife Jezebel, who calleth and] where thou dwellest, even herself a prophetess, and teach. where the throne of the adver- eth and seduceth my servants sary is : and yet thou holdest to commit fornication, and eat fast my name, and didst not things offered to idols. 21 And deny my faith, [even) in those I have given her time that she days [in] which Antipas was might reform ; and she will not my faithful witness, who was return from her fornication. 22 slain among you, were the ad. Behold, I will cast her on a versary dwelleth. 14 Neverthe- bed of sickness, and those who less I have a few things against commit adultery with her into thee, because thou hast there great affliction, unless they resuch as hold the doctrine of turn from her deeds. 23 And Balaam, who taught Balac to I will kill her children by the cast a stumbling-block before pestilence; and all the churches the sons of Israel, that they shall know that I search the might eat things offered to reins and the hearts, and will idols, and might commit for- give to every one of you accordnication. 15 So hast thou also ing to your works. such as hold, in like manner, 24 " But to you I say, even the doctrine of the Nicolaitans. to the rest in Thyatira, as many 16 Reform therefore; or else I as receive not this doctrine, and will come to thee quickly, and as have not known the deep will war against them with the things of the adversary, (as they sword of my mouth. 17 He speak ;) I will put on you no who hath an ear, let him hear other burden. 25 But what ye what the spirit saith to the have, hold fast till I come. 26 | churches. To him who over- And he who overcometh, and cometh I will give to eat of the performeth my works to the hidden manna ; and will give end, to him I will give power him a white stone, and on the over the nations ; 27 and he stone a new name written, which shall rule them with a rod of no one knoweth but he who re- iron; as the vessels of a potter ceiveth it.

they shall be broken in pieces; 18 “ And to the messenger even as I have received from of the church in Thyatira write: my Father. 28 And I will give • These things saith the Son of him the morning-star.' 29 He God, who hath his eyes as a who hath an ear, let him hear fame of fire, and whose feet are what the spirit saith to the like fine brass ; 19 I know thy churches. [works and] thy love, and ser CH. III. 1 " And to the mesvice, and faith, and patience, senger of the church in Sardis and thy last works, which are write : « These things saith he better than the first. 20 Never who hath the seven spirits of theless I have something against God, and the seven stars: I thee, because thou sufferest know thy works, that thou hast

the appearance of being alive, I gogue of the adversary* (who and yet are dead. 2 Be watch- say that they are Jews, and are ful, and strengthen the things not, but speak falsely, behold, which remain, which are about I will make them) to come, and to die: for I have not found do obeisance before thy feet, thy works perfect before my and know that I have loved God. 3 Remember therefore thee. 10 Because thou hast kept how thou hast received, [and my commandment concerning heard, and keep those things,] patience, I also will keep thee and reform. If therefore thou from the hour of trial, which is shalt not watch, I will come about to come on all the world, Con thee] as a thief, and thou to try those who dwell upon shalt not know what hour I the earth. 11 I shall come quickwill come on thee. 4 Yet thou ly: hold fast what thou hast, hast a few persons in Sardis, that no one take away thy who have not defiled their gar- crown. 12 Him who overcomments: and they shall walk 'eth, I will make a pillar in the with me in white; for they are temple of my God, and he shall worthy. 5 He who overcometh go out no more : and I will shall be clothed in white rai- write upon him the name of ment; and I will by no means my God, of the new Jerusalem, blot out his name from the book which will come down from of life, but I will confess his heaven from my God; and I name before my Father, and will write upon him my new before his angels.' 6 He who name.' 13 He who hath an ear, hath an ear, let him hear what let him hear what the spirit the spirit saith to the churches. saith to the churches. 7 6 And to the messenger

14 « And to the messenger of the church in Philadelphia of the church in Laodicea write: write : «These things saith he These things saith the Amen, who is holy, he who is true, he the faithful and true witness, the who hath the key of David, he chief of the creation of God:t who openeth and no one shut- 15 I know thy works, that teth, and who shutteth and no thou art neither cold nor hot: one openeth : 8 I know thy I would that thou wert either works : behold, I have set be. cold or hot. 16 So then because fore thee an open door, which thou art lukewarm, and neither no one can shut: for thou hast cold nor hot, I will soon cast but little power, and yet hast thee out of my mouth. 17 Bekept my word, and hast not cause thou sayest, I am rich, denied my name. 9 Behold, I and grown wealthy, and have will cause those of the syna. I need of nothing; and knowest

* By the Synagogue of the adversary are to be understood those of the Jews who opposed the gospel. * Or, the beginning of the creation of God. The first born of the new creation, being the Srst who was raised trom the dead. See Col. i. 15, 18.

not that thou art wretched, and appearance, like an emerald. 4 pitiable, and poor, and blind, And encircling the chief-throne and naked; 18 I counsel thee were twenty-four thrones: and to buy of me gold purified in upon the thrones I saw twentythe fire, that thou mayest grow four elders sitting, clothed in wealthy; and white raiment, white raiment; and on their that thou mayest be clothed, heads crowns of gold. 5 And from and that the shame of thy na- the throne proceed lightnings, kedness may not appear: and to and thunderings, and voices. And anoint thine eyes with eye- seven lamps of fire were burn. salve, that thou mayest see. 19 ing before the throne ; which As many as I love, I rebuke and are [the] seven spirits of God. 6 chasten: be zealous therefore, And there was before the throne, and reform. 20 Behold, I stand as it were, a glassy sea, resemat the door and knock : if any bling crystal: and in the midst one hear my voice, and open of the throne, and round about the door, I will come in to him, the throne, were four living and will sup with him, and he creatures full of eyes before with me. 21 To him who over- and behind. 7 And the first liv. cometh I will grant to sit with ing creature was like a lion, and me on my throne.' 22 He who the second living creature like hath an ear, let him hear what a steer, and the third living the spirit saith to the churches.” creature had the face of a man,

Ch. IV. 1 AFTER these things and the fourth living creature I looked, and, behold, a door was like a flying eagle. 8 And was opened in heaven : and the four living creatures had the first voice which I heard each of them six wings, full of was as it were of a trumpet eyes round about and within: talking with me, and saying, and they rest not day nor night, “ Come up hither, and I will saying, “ Holy, holy, holy, Lord show thee things which must God Almighty ; who was, and happen shortly.” 2 [And] im- is, and is to come.” 9 And mediately I was in the spirit: when those living creatures and, behold, a throne was plac- giye glory, and honour, and ed in heaven, and one sat on the thanks, to him who sat on the throne.* 3 [And he who sat] throne, who liveth to the ages was in appearance like a jasper of ages, 10 the twenty-four and a sardius : and a rainbow elders, fall down before him was round about the throne, in who sat on the throne, and wor

*"We are not to imagine," says Doddridge, that the person sitting on the throne, for the Lamb] or the twenty-four elders, or the four animals, were real beings, existing in nature ; though they represented, in a figurative manner, things that did really exist. I think it pro. bable, that all which passed was in the imagination of St. John.' This observation is very just and important. The whole scenery of this vision passed in the imagination of St. John; and we can no more argue the real external existence of such beings as angels and devils are commonly conceived to be, from the appearance in this vision, than we can infer the real existence of a lamb with seven eyes, or a dragon with seven heads. All these visionary cbaracters are alike symbolic of the means by which events, whether good or evil, are brought to pass under the direction of divine Providence." Im. Ver. note,

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