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sensual love may be seriously questioned. But the author deserves much credit for his manifest effort at comprehensiveness. One might wish that he had pursued some historical or geographical method, allowing the reader to survey the successive epochs of history and the different regions of the world in orderly manner and to watch the growth of the modern sentiment in its incipient stages. As it is, Jews and Gentiles, Greeks and barbarians, different races and different ages jostle one another on his pages. It is not easy to discover where the author draws his line, when he thinks that the new type of love began among

Wise Saadi is said to have understood its nature, but it is suggested that he derived the secret from the Arabs, who themselves learned it from the Franks. To Christianity the author devotes no attention, and the existence of this kind of love in Judaism or in the Græco-Roman world is strenuously denied. Where then did it originate? The topical arrangement is decidedly disadvantageous in a historical investigation.

The practices and sentiments of savages and barbarians are known to us chiefly through the reports of missionaries, soldiers, sailors, traveling merchants or scientists. Critical ability of a high order is demanded for the sifting of such testimony. In this the author excels. Yet one has an uneasy feeling that he is too sparing with his Attic salt when these persons generalize as to the low moral condition of the heathen, and too sceptical when they relate things that look like love of a good and noble quality. So ingeniously fault-finding is sometimes, his criticism of an ancient love-story that one falls to wondering how the noblest tale of modern conjugal affection would fare at his hands, were it by a mistake understood as coming from antiquity.

There can be no question that, for substance of doctrine, Mr. Finck is right. In love, as in everything else, that is not first which is spiritual, but that which is carnal. There has been a gradual evolution, and it is far from having reached its goal yet. But the beginnings of altruistic, supersensual, sentimental love are probably much older than the author seems to think and more closely bound up with the physical relation. Too intent upon proving the modernity of this sentiment, he has not always been able to do full justice to the instances quoted against his theory In spite of all the sensuality of "Canticles," there can be no doubt as to the spiritual nature of the sentiment expressed in the words, "Set me as a seal on thy heart, for love is stronger than death," and "he who would buy love would be utterly contemned." The love that cannot be bought, seeks not its own, and gives itself freely, may exist in the worst form of marriage and may suffer in the best. It tends, as the author has finely shown, to create a type of marital union, wisely and tenderly considerate of the character and welfare of coming generations.

NATHANIEL SCHMIDT. CORNELL UNIVERSITY.

CHRISTIAN SOCIALISM IN ENGLAND. By Arthur V. Woodworth,

Ph. D. London: Swan Sonnenschein & Co., 1903, pp. viii, 208.

This book has as its purpose to supplement, from the records of the Socialist movement which have their initiative from the religious side, such studies as already exist of the more purely economic tendencies toward coöperation. Taking as his point of departure Kingsley's address to the Chartists in 1848, Mr. Woodworth traces the subsequent growth of the teaching of Kingsley and Maurice, and the actual foundation of the movement in the Working Men's College, the Coöperative Movement, the Guild of St. Matthew, and the Christian Social Union. This history fills a chink in that of labor co-partnership and the moralisation of industrial conditions which it was certainly desirable to have filled : and there can be only praise for the thoroughness with which the facts regarding these institutions have been sought for, and their principles expounded. One or two deficiencies, however, strike anyone who looks further back than 1848. Mr. Woodworth's account has not been attached to the economic conditions then prevailing, so much as to the political agitation and demands of the Chartists; and something might have been said of the earlier Socialists whose influence was not negligible on the later movement. There are, further, two lines of thought which have not been developed, although their omission may have been purposeful. In the first place, the literary development is only scantily referred to, although many persons would hold that Ruskin's view of the economists, or Kingsley's novels, or Carlyle's denunciations, or even some of George Eliot's work, was peculiarly relevant, and, perhaps, the most vivid side of the history as a whole. At any rate, there is much matter there which would have considerably relieved the plain facts of historical institutions. In the second place, while the author has traced on one hand the growth of working institutions, and on the other the growth of those which rather exist for study, such as the Christian Social Union, he has given inadequate attention to the most modern endeavors to bridge this gap, such, for instance, as the University and College Settlements, or the efforts to make the personal service of educated people effective in leavening the more dangerous tendencies of aggressive Socialism. These things may have been considered outside Mr. Woodworth's scope. But this concise history would gain by being interwoven with the threads of literary or "practicable" socialism,

D. H. MACGREGOR. TRINITY COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE.

THE PRINCIPLES OF MORAL SCIENCE, an Essay by the Rev. Walter

McDonald, D. D., Prefect of the Dunboyne Establishment, St. Patrick's College, Maynooth. Dublin : Browne & Nolan, pp.

xi, 230.

This is an attempt on the part of a professed Roman Catholic to set forth the fundamental principles of Ethics as seen from that standpoint. The attempt is carried out with a good deal of acuteness, common-sense, and a refreshing naiveté which makes it possible for the writer to admit his perplexities frankly. And owing to the theological position a curious side-light is thrown upon more than one of the deeper problems. Indeed, both the interest and weakness of the book seem largely due to an unquestioning acceptance of this position.

"Good" is taken as "a notion too simple to be capable of definition”; “moral good” as applicable to those actions which are capable of being directed by intelligent will. Such actions are said to be in accordance with “natural law," that is to say, they are right and good to perform—and this rightness holds whatever opinion men or Man may or may not entertain. On this point Dr. McDonald lays the utmost stress, and this belief in an absolute standard seems the pivot of his work, just as it is the mainstay of the whole Roman Catholic system. But he goes on to state that the natural law is “supported at every point by the divine law,” and further that no sense can be attached to the word "ought" unless we assume the relation of an inferior to a superior who gives commands. The relation of this "divine law” to the "natural law” is not made clear, and the reader longs to put the Socratic question: "Does God command a thing because Vol. XV.-No. I

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it is holy; or is it holy because God commands it?” case Dr. McDonald does not seem afraid of the strange position that while it is possible for an atheist to say, “This is good to do," he cannot go on to say, “This is what I ought to do." Elsewhere he insists on free-will as justifying the “ought"; "ought” implying that the act is good and that the man is free to do it. Common-sense would consider this justification enough.

The content of morality is discovered, though in no way determined, by Intuition. It is through Intuition that we learn,

. for instance, that we ought to obey God because he is our creator, that we ought on no account to lie, that punishment should be given for certain sins, as a restoration of "order," whether it has any further use or not. The mere statement of such dicta is sufficient to bring out the startling discrepancy between the intuitions that different men hold, or believe themselves to hold. Whatever the truth about the intuitive method, this discrepancy must give us pause, if it does not make us uncomfortable.

The book contains slight, but so far as they go, shrewd criticisms of Mill and Kant. The second half consists of lengthy and not very fruitful discussions on the relations of will, motive, intention, and act, and the right line of conduct in cases of ignorance or doubt. Here the technical jargon of "Probabilism, Equiprobabilism, and Probabiliorism” make us almost long once more for the Utilitarian's “felicific" and "self-regarding” virtues.

F. MELIAN STAWELL. LONDON.

METHODS OF SOCIAL ADVANCE: SHORT STUDIES IN SOCIAL PRAC

TICE. By Various Authors. Edited by C. S. Loch, B. A. London and New York: Macmillan & Co., 1904, pp. 192.

Professor Loch has collected together a series of short papers which served as subjects for discussion at special meetings of the Council of the Charity Organization Society. The papers are of unequal and not very high merit. They are not careful scientific or statistical studies of social conditions or of the effects of different attempts to remedy social evils, but are chiefly made up of suggestions for improving social conditions which are put forward rather vaguely. Thus Mr. H. Rider Haggard is most anxious to keep people on the land or to bring town people to the land. Amongst other suggestions he proposes to board out young people in selected cottages in selected villages (in order to give them an agricultural training). He then adds, “This is merely an idea that has struck me. It may have been put into practice for aught I know, but while I was thinking over these things last night, it occurred to me for the first time. Say you take one thousand lads (and they must be young) and put them with respectable people—board them out and pay for their living at first until they learn something—you might then at any rate get a proportion of good results.” It is not difficult to collect plenty of "ideas” such as this, but it is difficult to work out carefully designed schemes and to test their results. Mr. Haggard's paper is, perhaps, the worst in the book. Colonel Dale's paper on “Physical Education” advocates the teaching of military drill as part of a secondary system of continuation education. But he does not work out in detail the moral and physical effects of drill. Thousands of men in the country have been drilled while at school. How much benefit did they obtain from it? Colonel Dale asserts that it attracts young people. It does, no doubt, attract some, but it repels others, and in some schools “extra drill” is a well recognised punishment. But this again is not one of the best papers. Of the better papers that on the “Work of a Hospital Almoner” and that on “Apprenticeship” may be selected as examples; but even these are not of a very high level. Thus in the former paper we get the statement "out of twenty out-patient books taken at random from the shelf ... etc.;" here clearly there was a mass of statistics which might have been instructive, but which were not utilised. How much better it would have been to have used all the material instead of a random group. The paper on “Apprenticeship" is fairly argued, but the authors do not seem to realise how many Trade Unions have rules restricting the number of apprentices, and how often the apprentice is taken as a source of profit by unscrupulous employers.

This book is a specimen of that class of modern books composed of a series of short papers by different persons without much continuous argument or development. Such a collection must lack unity, and must be unequal. This book is not better nor worse than many others of its class, but the class is a bad one. Often and often, we hear the tit-bits style of newspaper condemned; the patch-work book is little better.

C. P. SANGER. LONDON.

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