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thou art worthy of being a teach- place Josiah defiled. The filth er; and I koow, and have expe- and carcases cast into it, were first rienced the truth of thy doctrines. a prey to worms, and then to fire. Raca, said the rabbi; thou wouldst It was the general receptacie of not believe, unless thou shouldst polluting substances from the city, see.”—Had the beginnings of evil and a continual fire was kept in it been deemed thus censurable, the to consume them. This valley, in more gross vices, and enormous the time of our Saviour, was callcrimes, would not have been as ed Geenna ; but it is not called they were, excused, or even jus- by this name, in the canonical tified.
scriptures of the Old Testament, “But whosoever shall say, thou Tophet,* a place in the valley, is fool, shall be in danger of,-ob- however repeatedly mentioned. noxious to,-hell fire."
Our Saviour expressed the state The term fool here, does not de- of the blessed, by sensible images; signate one merely void of under- such as paradise, and Abraham's standing. It implies, abandoned bosom ; and in like manner, the to vice---réprobate. It refers to place of future punishment, by the spiritual state of him to whom Geenna. These emblematical imait is applied. It is, in the worst ges, expressing heaven and hell, sense, a condemnatory appellation. were in use among the Jews, beThe term Raca, expresses re
fore the time of our Saviour; and proach, contempt, and disgust; but he used them, in compliance with Thou fool, an anticipation of the their notions. The Chaldee parfinal judgment of God against him, aphrast on Isaiah xxx. 33, renders to whom it is addressed.
everlasting or continual burnings, The word which is here trans- by “ the Geenna of everlasting lated hell fire, is derived from Gi fire.” I believe that the only Hinnom, the hebrew words which places in which the word occurs in depote the valley of Hinnom, near the New Testament are, Matth.v. Jerusalem, where the idolatrous 22, 29, 30. ch. X. 28. ch. sviii. 9. Jews had burnt their sons and ch. xxiii. 15, 33. Mark ix. 43 their daughters in the fire. This 45–47. Luke xii. 5. James iii. 6.
THE COMPLAINT OF DEGENERACY EXAMINED,
The reign of Henry VIII. com- and bloody character. His opinmenced 1509 and ended 1547. ions were a motley compound of He was an arbitrary, vindictive popery and protestantism, and of
The place, it is supposed, der its name from the noise of drums ; (Topk signifying a drum,) a noise made to drown the cries of the infants, which were sacrificed to Moloch. (Lightfoot on the text. Campbell's Diss, 6. p. 2. Joseph Mede, p. 31. Lowth's Isaiah, p.p. 307 and 405. Boston Ed. Lardner, v, 1. p. 37. Newcome on our Lord. p. 14.]
opinions opposed to both. He fire, and to the same forfeitures as wrote against Luther, rejected the in cases of treason; and admitted supremacy of the Roman pontiff, not the privilege of abjurationand assumed to himself the supre- an unheard-of severity:—and unmacy of the church in England known to the inquisition itself. and Ireland.
The denial of any of the other The clergy were much divided five articles, even though recantin opinion. And the king taking ed, was punishable by the forfeita kind of middle ground, each ure of goods and chattels, and imparty was induced to court bis fa- prisonment during the king's pleavor, and each felt the weight of sure. Au obstinate adherence to his tyrannical and overbearing error, or a relapse, was.adjudged disposition. As he agreed with to be felony and punishable with neither, some of both parties were death. The marriage of the priests executed for their religious opin- was subjected to the same punishions; and he became a terror both ment. Their commerce with woto the clergy and the parliament. men was, on the first offence, forStill as he ventured to set up his feiture and imprisonment on the own claims in opposition to the second, death. The abstaining infallibility and supremacy of the from confession, and from receive pope, the course he pursued excit- ing the eucharist at the accustomed inquiry and discussion, and fi- ed time, subjected the person to nally operated in favor of the re- fine and to imprisonment during formation.
the king's pleasure ; and i: the A convocation was called to de criminal persevered after convice cide on articles of faith. They tion, he was punishable by death determined the standard of faith and forfeiture, as in cases of felto consist in the scriptures and the ony." three creeds, the Apostolic, the Such a law, if fully executed Nicene, and the Athanasian.” in our country, would probably This was considered as a victory sweep off nineteen twentieths of on the part of the reformers, as all the adult inhabitants. Yet such many thiugs were onjitted of the a law existed among our ancestors popish creed.
within less than three hundred But after this,“ a bill of six ar- years, and received the approbaticles” which the protestants tion of the majority in both houses termed“ the bloody bill”-passed of parliament. both houses of parliament. “In After passing this “bloody bill”. this bill the doctrine of the real the king appointed a commission presence,” or transubstantiation, consisting of the two archbishops “was established, the communion in and several bishops of both provone kind, the perpetual obligation inces, together with a considerable of vows of chastity, the utility of number of doctors of divinity; and private masses, the celibacy of the by virtue of his ecclesiastical suclergy and auricular confession.- premacy he had given them in The denial of the first article charge to choose a religion for his subjected the person to death by people. Before the commissioners
had made any progress in this ar- “ The art of reading made a duous undertaking, the parliament very slow progress. To encour in 1541, passed a law, by which age that art in Eugiand, the capithey ratified all the tenets which tal punishments for murder was rethese divines should thereafter es- mitted if the criminal could read, tablish by the king's consent !"- which in law language is called Such preposterous conduct re- benefit of clergy. One would imquires no comment.
agine that the art must have made A. D. 1544 “An act passed a rapid progress when so greatly declaring that the king's usual favored; but there is a signal style should be—“ King of Eng proof of the contrary; for so small land, France and Ireland, defend- an edition of the Bible as six huner of the faith, and on earth the dred copies, translated into English supreme head of the church of in the reign of Henry VIII. was England and Ireland !"
not wholly sold off in three years." “ The prisoners in the king. Sketches of the History of Man, dom, for debts and crimes are as. vol. I. p. 182 serted in an act of parliament to Compare these facts with what be above 60,000 persons. Harri- was done by the British and Forson asserts that 72,000 criminals eign Bible Society in 1813-14 were executed during this reign and 15, and what must be said of for theft and robbery, which would the complaint of degeneracy! amount nearly to 2,000 a year. Henry VIII. died 1547, having He adds, that in the latter end of assigned the crown to his son EdElizabeth's reign, there were not ward VI. who was then in his punished capitally 400 a year. It tenth year. The duke of Somappears that in all England there erset was appointed protector durare not at present 50 executed for ing the king's minority. He fathose crimes. If these facts be vored the protestant cause. Majust, says Hume, there has been any of the doctrines and rites of great improvement in morals since popery were suppressed; but the the reign of Henry VIII." most exceptionable parts of pope
It would be easy to collect a ry, the principle and spirit of inmuch greater number of facts from tolerance and persecution were rethe history of this reign, as proof tained. “ Though the protestant that the people of England at that divines ventured to renounce opinperiod were very far from being ions deemed certain during many in general, either an enlightened ages, they regarded in their turn or a very virtuous people. A spir- the new system as so certain that it of inquiry was however in some they would suffer no contradictiou measure excited ; the eyes of ma- with regard to it; and they were ny were partially opened, so that ready to burn in the same flames they saw men as trees walking." from which they themselves had so But the sanguinary laws, and the narrowly escaped, every one who multitude of executions, are unde- had the assurance to differ from niable proofs of ayfol depravity them. A commission by act of and delusion.
council was granted to the primate
and some others, to examine and tant clergy were made to feel the search after all anabaptists, here- evil of that intolerant spirit, which tics, or contemuers of the book of they had indulged while the pow. common prayer."
er was in their hands. The law In consequence of this bloody of the "six articles” was revived, commission Joan of Kent and Van and much was done to reestablish Paris were burut alive. Cranmer, popery in Great Britain. " It is who was probably one of the best computed that in that time 277 men in the kingdom, was the pri- persons were brought to the stake, mate who was at the head of these besides those who were punished black proceedings; but it was not by imprisonment, fines and confisjong before he in his turn shared a cations. Among those who sufsimilar fate under the reign offered by fire were 5 bishops, 21 Mary. The delusive opinion that clergymen, 8 lay gentlemen, 84 it is right to put med to death for tradesmen, 100 husbandmen, serheresy, was in that age common to vauts and laborers, and 4 chil. both papists and protestants; and dren.” as each regarded the other as here- The reign of Mary was short tical, which ever party was in pow- and terrible. She was raised up er the other was sure to be perse- as a scourge to chastise a bloody cuted.
and wicked people, and to try the During the minority and life of faith and patience of the real Edward VI. considerable blood friends of God. Having answerwas shed both on account of poli- ed these purposes, God in mercy tics and religion, by public execu- removed her from the world. She tions, as well as by insurrection. reigned five years and four months, The protector himself was finally and died Nov. 17th, 1558. degraded and beheaded by the Queen Elizabeth succeeded Maviolence of his rivals. But the ry. She favored the protestant ourse of heaveu seemed to follow
cause in opposition to that of the the principal agents in these sav. papists; but like her father, Henguinary measures, whether of the ry VIII. she assumed the suprenobility or the clergy:--And the macy of the church of England, denunciation, “Whoso sheddeth and in many respects, acted the mau's blood by man shall his blood part of a pontiff. Mr. Hume rebe shed,” was remarkably verified garded her as one of the most ac. in a multitude of instances. complished sovereigns that ever
The law of the “ six articles," reigned in England. She had unpassed in the reign of Henry VIII. questionably remarkable talents was abolished in the time of Ed. for government, and as she favor. ward VI.
ed the protestant cause, she has In 1553 Edward VI. died, and been made the subject of extrava. Mary ascended the throne. She gant eulogies and panegyrics
. Mawss a papist, aud as such she re- uy things in her administration taliated with seven-fold vengeance
were commendable. There were the wrongs done to her party in also some things deserving of the the preceding reign. The protes serercst censure. She possessed
, the spirit and adopted the princi- could desire, much less deserve." ple of persecution, but in a less de- He added in conclusion-Neither gree than her bloody predecessor. do we present our thanks in words
Elizabeth “pretended that in or any outward sign, which can be quality of supreme head or gover. no sufficient retribution for nor of the church, she was fully great goodness; but in all duty empowered, by her prerogative and thankfuluess, prostrate at your alone, to decide all questions feet, and present our most loyal which might arise with regard to and thankful hearts, even the last doctrine, discipline or worship s drop of blood in our hearts, and and she never would allow her the last spirit of breath in our parliament so much as to take nostrils, to be poured out, to be these points into consideration.” breathed up for your safety.”
This queen had the address to What would be thought of the obtaiu a remarkable ascendancy British parliament at this day, if over the minds of the parliament, they should thus deify a woman! and to keep them in a state of It will however be admitted subjection to her own will. As a. that the state of society in Engspecimen of the submissive charac- land was considerably improved ter of the parliament in 1601, an during the long reign of Elizainstance may he mentioned. On beth ; and there was doubtless a the queen's giving information to considerable number of men of the speaker that she would cancel that age who were eminent for tala patent which was very grievous ents, virtue and piety. But it to the people, and which was then may be presumed that this was not under discussion in the House of the age in which those ancestors Commons, he with the other mem- lived, in comparison with whom bers were admitted to the presence the present race may be called of the queen." They all flung degenerate. themselves on their knees, and re- Queen Elizabeth died in 1603, mained in this posture a considers in the 70th year of her age and able time, till she thought proper 45th of her reign. We have thereto express her desire that they fore but two certuries more to exshould rise." The speaker then amine prior to the present. In expressed the gratitude of the the two remaining centuries, we House of Commons, and acknow- may hope to find more to comledged that “her preventing grace mend, if not less to censure, than and all-deserving goodness watch- in those which have already been ed over them for good”-that she examined.
more ready to give than they
THE DEVOUT MAN, CONTRASTED WITH THOSE WHO LIVE WITHOUT
GOD IN THE WORLD, There is one Almighty Being portant object which can employ at the head of the universe, who our thoughts or interest cur affecis incomparably the most in- tions. In comparison - with him