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quences which would result from spirits of some of our forefathers their flight across the Atlantick. yet linger about our wintery They saw before them the un-shores to remind us of principles explored continent of North which they understood, not alAmerica, yet to be subdued to ways fully while they lived, but the dominion of the Prince of almost without exception before Peace; and though they could they died. not have foreseen the rapid waste After all the deductions made of the native inhabitants, and by a philosophical and fastidious the immense increase of Euro- posterity, there will get remain pean emigration, they certainly in the character of our forefathers, cherished the hope, that by going much to admire and to imitate. thither they might make way for They were the choice spirits of the propagation of the Christian the age. Some of them were religion in a heathen land ;' men of eminence at home, bethough, to use a pbrase of their fore they forsook all for liberty own, they should be but “as of conscience. Many of them stepping stones to other's who were men of education. Their might come after them.”

ideas of government were worIt is easy, indeed, to find many thy of sound thinkers; their adgood principles pushed to excess ministration in general worthy in the conduct of the non-con- of good men, and many of their forming churches of that day; but notions of the qualifications for they were such errours as always the Christian, worthy of being attend the first development revived and emulated. of a principle essentially true, Let us, then, as descendants and which experience is sure to of these pilgrims, cherish with correct in considerate and sensi- all the tenderness in our powble men. The most severe muster, those sublime principles of allow, that our forefathers under- Christian liberty and catholistood the principles of toleration cism, which lay at the foundation as soon as they were understood of their heroick virtues. Do not in the civilized world; and that confound these with the princiRobinson, their spiritual father, "ples (if principles they may be seems to have understood them called,) of skepticism and inmuch earlier. In any view of difference, which are so often the subject, we ought to adore substituted in their place; for the good Providence of God, what merit is there in his tolerathat by a series of such remarka- tion of religious opinions, who ble events, the way was prepared considers alt religions as equally for the emigration of such men false, or doubtful, or unimporto this country, and for the diffu- tant ? sion of the great principles of Let us imitate their most ansprotestantism and toleration, of ious solicitude for the religious which New-England has been education of their children. To the depositary, and of which we secure their good estate as memcannot be despoiled, while the bers of the church of Christ, and

fulfil their baptismal engagement, on which profligacy, vanity, imthey thought it a light evil, that pudence and crime were to be they were compelled to leave in everlasting struggle with virtheir dear native country, and tue, modesty, wisdom, and inteundergo the dangers and priva- grity; but the earliest history of tio:is of an emigration to this in- New-England, exhibits offices hos;itable land. They looked conferred on the best, accepted forward with eyes of faith and with reluctance, but illed with hope to their pious posterity, fidelity; and, as our forefathers who, under the blessing of Pro- had emigrated for the sake of vidence and their religious in- peace, liberty, and security, they stitutions, should many genera

were satisfied when well governtions afierwards, constitute the ed, even if every man had not church of Christ in these re- an opportunity of having the gious.

consular fasces carried before Let us imitate their respect him once in his life. for the Sabbath ; their regard for In fine, there there is not the publick institutions of reli. much danger at present of our region; their anxiety to perpetu- lapsing into the errours and misate a learned, pious, and regular takes of our forefathers : would ministry; and their principles of to God, there were as little of subordination and of respect for our forgetting their principles, age and office.

and casting off their distinguishLet us especially, observe the ing virtues. But whatever be care with which they conferred the degeneracy into which God, the offices of trust and authority in his wrath, may suffer us to fall, on their best and wisest men. there is yet hope left, that we are They had no notion, that civil not without a regenerating priosociety was nothing but an ciple of political and religious arena in which folly could aspire virtue, wbile any hearts yet beat to honour, and ambition contend at the name of ROBINSON, or any for office. They did not regard of us glory in our descent from the commonwealth as a theatre the pilgrims.*



* The principles of toleration comprise two propositions:- First, no man, or body of men, has any right to molest or injure me, on account of my religious opinions. Second, I have no right to molest or injure others, on account of their religious opinions.

The first proposition is readily understood by any Christian, as soon as he is abused for dissenting from the opinions of others. Our forefathers fully understood, that it was unreasonable in the Episcopal church of England to persecute them. But the second proposition they did not so clearly understand; and, indeed, this seems to have been a very hard lesson for Christians to learn, and to reduce to practice. It would, perhaps, be no difficult task to shew, that some of the descendants of the pilgrims, even at this day, have not clearly perceived, that it is as unreasonable for them to traduce and abuse others, as for others to traduce and abuse them.



Portsmouth, October 28, 1816. SIR,

I have lately read many of ue to fill your Magazine, a disposiyour numbers of the Christian tion for religious controversy and Disciple, and am well pleased intolerance must decline, where with the candid and Christian it circulates, or there can be but spirit uniformly inculcated. The little sense of shame with the perusal of the number for Octo- dogmatical. The piece on the ber especially, has given me so National Bible Society, and, in much agreeable information, that short, the whole contents, in my I shall, for the next year at least, opinion, well merit a place in your contribute my mite to its support, valuable publication; which, for which I am likely to be well for the credit of New-England, repaid.

I hope will never be disconI think while such pieces as tinued for want of patronage. your extracts from the Rev. Mr. If you think fit to publish Wells's “ observations," and these remarks, I should like other argumentative pieces, to see them in your next ntumbreathing the same spirit, contin- ber.*


THERE is not, perhaps, ano- ed with an explicit license for ther person living at the present giving it a place in this work. day, who attracts more attention No doubt is entertained of its than the Emperour Alexander. genuineness or authenticity. Whatever may tend to unfold For the information of many his character and views, must readers, it may be proper to obbe interesting to the world. The serve, that prior to the interview following narrative was several with Mr. Clarkson at Paris, an months ago, shown to the Editor interview took place in London, of the Christian Disciple, in between the Emperour and three manuscript; and it was then eminent persons of the Society requested for publication. But of Friends ; namely, Wilkinson the conscientious possessor of the and Allen, of Great-Britain, and copy, doubted the propriety of Stephen Grellet, of New-York. suffering it to be published, al- Wilkinson and Grellet are ministhough he was under no injunc- ters, and William Allen, is one tion to the contrary. It has, of the Committee of the British however, been recently receiv. and Foreign School Society,

* This letter was not received till the number for November was published.


To this prior interview, there is Clarkson, the writer of the folreference in the conversation lowing parrative, is well known with Clarkson. Stephen Grellet in England and to many in this has been requested to suffer an country, as the author of several account to be published, of what valuable publications, and as passed between the Emperour one, who, for many years, deand the three Quakers ; but he voted his time and talents, to has declined, from motives of effect the abolition of the slaveprudence and delicacy. Mr. trade.



When I arrived at Paris, the favour towards them. This letEmperour of Russia had just left ter I carried to the baroness Konit, to review his armies on the dener, a Russian lady of quality, plains of Vertus ; which journey and sat and conversed with her occupied some days: on his return on the subject for near an hour. to Paris, I wrote him a letter. I The baroness is a lady of the stated in substance, that having most exemplary life; she devotes heard when he was in London, herself to religion. from the duke of Gloucester, The Emperour of Russia genefrom Mr. Wilberforce, from Sir rally calls on her every evening Robert Wilson, and from the at 1 o'clock, to converse on spigood Quakers, viz. Mr. Grellet, ritual subjects; it was on this Wilkinson and Allen, to whom account I carried my letter to he had granted an audience for her, and also one from the duke two hours, of the interest which of Gloucester to the Emperour, he had taken in the cause of the which was intended as an introunhappy Africans. I had sent duction of me to the latter perhim a complete set of my works, sonage. The baroness assured through the bands of lady War- me, that she would deliver both ren, which she delivered to of them into the hands of his Count Nesselrode, as a small majesty, as soon as she could testimony of the respect and

In the course of two esteem I felt for him on that ac- days, I received a message from count; but on further considera- the baroness, that the Emperour tion of the subject, I had not i een had received and read both the satisfied with myself, and know- letters in her presence; and that ing that he was in Paris, (which he was apparently much pleased was comparatively a small dis- with them. He desired her to tance) I had determined to go instruct me to thank the duke of thither and thank him in person Gloucester for his letter of introfor all his efforts on behalf of duction of me to him, and with that injured people; and to im- respect to my letter, that that plore, should any future opportu- part of it had given him peculiar nity offer, a continuance of his satisfaction, wherein I had ment

see him.

tioned the names of those three England expressly to see him. good men, whose conversation He was not in the habit of makhad so much interested hion when ing compliments; he meant what in London. He desired her to he said; be should not casily add, that he was then exceed- forget my visit.

I had only ingly occupied, but that, in a done him justice, when I conshort time, he would make an sidered bim to be the friend of arrangement for seeing me. the poor Africans; he had al

On the 22d day of September, ways been the friend of the I received a message from the poor Africans ; he bad albaroness Kondever, that the Em- ways been an enemy to the perour desired my attendance at sluve-trade. He had, indeed, her house the next day, at 11 known nothing more of it than o'clock, in the morning.

other people. He knew only, Accordingly I went, expect that the Africans were taken ing to find him there, but it ap- from their country against their peared that he had sent one of will, and were transported to the his own domestick servants to colonies of foreigners, for whom shew me the way to him. This they were made to work, under servant I followed closely to the a system commonly called cruel. Palais Royale ; when arrived But this he considered an outthere, he conducted me through rage against human nature, and several rooms, and at length left this alone, had made him a deme in a spacious apartment, in termined enemy to the traffick. which were two or three Prussian But when, in after time, he bad officers, who were on guard for read more books, which had furthe day. I remained for some nished him with particulars on time, when another of bis do the subject, and when he had mesticks came up to me, and seen the print of the slave-ship, desired me to follow him. He he felt be should be unworthy of led me through three other rooms the high station he held, if he into a fourth, in which was a had not done his utmost in all gentleman, who said, “the Em- the late political conferences on perour is in the next room, and the subject, “ to wipe away such expects you.” At this moment a pestilence from the face of the I felt a little embarassed, as to earth.” what I should say; but I was After this he let go my band, instantly relieved from this feels and we stood talking face to face. ing, by the affability of the Empe. There was no other person in

He came to meet me to the room. I told him, that I the very door. He then took had long ago understood (as I my hand into his own, and led had the honour of informing him me into the room; and immedi- in the letter) that his disposition ately broke silence by addressing towards the oppressed Africans, me in English. He said (still had been such as I now had the continuing my hand in his own) satisfaction of hearing fra his that he considered I had done own mouth; that his kind dishim honour, by coming from position towards them was now


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