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vindictive patriotism, revengeful that the vices of this age are very bravery, and dexterity in destroy- great compared with the vices of ing enemies, were in high repute; former days. But in due time and probably many names have we may perhaps let history speak come down to us, as belonging to for itself. men of eminent worth, whose vir: Eleventh. In extolling the pi. tues were chiefly, if not altogeth-ety of ancestors, persous of difer, of the military kind, and ferent sects have in view different whose enormous vices have been classes of men; and those who concealed from us by the splen- are eulogized by one sect, as emdor of that glory, which was ac- inent examples of purity in doequired in killing the natives. We trive and practice, are often justknow that for ages our ancestors ly reproached by persons of anwere fighting Christians; and, to other sect, as violent persecutors. the reproach of the Christian In speaking of pious ancestors world, military renown has long the Quakers would naturally call been admitted as a substitute for to mind their Fox, Barclay and the virtues which the gospel en- Peon. The papists would bave joins.

in view another list; the episcoTenth. The vices of the pres- paitan, the presbyterian, the conent age-like present calamities gregationalist, &c.&e. would each

& are before our eyes, and attract have bis distinct list, and cach our attention, while the vices of perhaps would admit but very former times are more out of sight, few of the others.

Let a genu: and of course out of mind. How ine partizan from each of the often do we hear persons say, different sects express his opin“I never saw the like!" while in ions and his prejudices--then truth they had often seen tbe like exclude from the list of piin former years. It is wisely or- ous ancestors all to which objec. dered in providence, that things tions shall have been made, and which are present as to time and how few names would be found place, make a greater impression remaining! on our minds, than things past

There are so many ways in or things remote. A known in- which people are liable to be misstance of drunkenness, theft, rob- led, in comparing the present bery, or murder in our own neigh- state of morals and religion with borhood, will perhaps affect us what existed among our ances. more, than the hearing of a thou- tors, that I cannot but seriously sand sueb instances in a former doubt the correctness of the com, age or a distant country. In this mon opinion and complaint. way people may be led to believe,


MANDMENT. In the last volume we brought which have been popular among to view seven sanguinary customs, Christians. We may now eb:

serve how the command "Thou whether they have done any inshalt not kill," must bave been jury, or vot. explained away and tortured, to Such must have been the com. give place to these customs. ments on the divine command, to

1. Killing men for supposed justify the several customs. We heresy,

may suggest another explana“Thou shalt not kill:" that is, tion, which is as just as either of says St. Augustine, “Thou shalt the preceding. "Thou shalt not pot kill orthodox believers; but kill," exeepting such persons as this command does not protect thou shalt wish to have removed the heretic.

out of thy way. This is muking II. Propagating the gospel by short work, and expressing in the sword.

few words the spirit of the other “Thou shalt not kill," except- explanations, or limitations, ing so many pagans as it shall be This explanation applies most necessary to destroy to convert clearly to the custom of publie the nations to Christianity. war; and if this custom can be

III. Crusades against the Ma- reconciled to a sacred regard for hometans as infidels.

the command which forbids mur“Thou shalt not kill” the ortho- der, there is not a man on the dox papists, but this command af. face of the earth who may not bo fords no protection to Mahometans. killed without violating the law

IV. Private war, under the of God. For if the unoffending feudal system,

subjects of one nation muy justly “Thou shalt not kill," except- be put to death, in eonsequence ing the baron who injures you, of a declaration of war by the and his servants or dependants; rulers of another nation, a counand such of his relations as fali ter declaration will make it just within the seventh degree of af. to kill the unoffending subjects of

the nation which commenced the V. Judicial combat.

war. And if they may justly “Thou shalt oot kill,” except- begin to kill, they may justly ing thy antagonist. But antago- continue to kill, till one of the naDists may be made at pleasure, tione shall be totally exterminatand when made they may be kill- ed. Thus the whole human ed.

race may be reduced to one man, VI. Private duelling.

without any transgression of the “Thou shalt not kill,” except- divine command. ing some gentleman speaks a According to the present eusword which impeaches iby hon. tom of war, it is considered as

the duty of soldiers, on each side VII. Public war.

of the contest, to obey the most “Thou shalt pot kill,” excepte sanguinary orders of their ruing such as thy rulers wish to lers. However unjust the cause destroy. But this command af- may be on the part of a governfords no protection to the people ment, this is not regarded as any of any nation, after a war mani. reason why the soldiers should festo has made them enemies, not fight. Towns day be de.

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stroyed, and men, women, and human lives than all the other six, children indiscriminately and still reigos triumphant; and by wantonly butchered, if the com- the general consent of Christian mander gives the word; and nations it is crowned with glory peither officers nor soldiers are and honor. regarded as guilty of murder, Each of the customs has been On this principle it may be the more or less destructive in produty of soldiers to kill the most portion to its popularity. When jonocent and the most upright any one of them lost its popularpersons on earth, to gratify an ity, its mischiefs abated of course. ungodly ruder.

From what has been, we must inIn like manner the custom offer what may be. If other cuswar treats every precept, which toms, which were once popular binds med to love one another. and thought to be just and neThe commands of God all

for cessary,

have lyst all their popunothing before a war inanifesto, larity, and ceased to exist, such and both of two armies are con- may be the fate of war. sidered as doing their duty, and Should an inpartial compari. acting bravely, in slaughtering son of the seven customs be made, one another.

What is this bet, it would perhaps be difficult to ter than insanity?

decide which is the moit unrca. or the seven sanguinary cus- sonable and unjust, or most retoms, four have been totally abol. pugnant to the spirit of the gos. ished; and two of the remaining pel. Future generations will three have lost in a great meas- probably class them all together, ure the popularity they once pos. as the fruits of savage passions, sessed. The custom of propa- accompanied by religious or po. gating the gospel by the sword; litical fanaticism, delusion, and the Crusades against Mahome- insanity. tans; privite wars and the judicial Aside from its present popularicombat, are all now reprobated ty,posolid reason can be given,why as savage and antichristian. De- the custom of public warshould be stroying men for supposed here. preferred as more equitable, just, sy, is perhaps in a few instances or Christlike, than the custom of still practised in some popish private wars, or the custom of countries, but the custom has duelling.

Does the custom of lost its popularity among pro: duelling expose the innocent and testants, and probably with most injured person to still greater sufof the Roman Catholics. The fering, as his only recompense custom of private duelling has for the evils already endured? ever been limited to a particular Just so it is with the custom of class of men, and for a long war.

Does the custom of duel. time it has been sinking into con- ling place the innocent and the tempt in the view of the serious guilty on equal ground, as to liaand conscientious. But the cus. bility to further injury? So does tom of war, which is as savage the custom of war. Does the and unjust as either of the others, custom of duelling give opportuand which has destroyed more nity for the indulgence of the vil.

est passions of the human heart appear at the bar of God, either
So does war. Does not the cus. as manslayers, or as persous who
tom of duelling expose innocent have been slaughtered by their
families to be reduced to mourn- brethren!
ing, want and misery, by the We are not authorized to say
death of those on whom they wħat allowance will be made by
are dependant? War does more, a merciful God, for the delusions
it exposes the innocent families which have resulted from the
not only to loss of friends and popularity of sanguinary cus-
property, but to be killed by the ioms. But if all professed
invading foe. Does the custom of Christians who have been con-
duelling deprive the community of cerned in supporting these cus-
persons of eminent talents? So toms, and who died in such er.
does war. Is duelling a perfect. rors, shall be excluded from the
ly uncertain mode of obtaining kingdom of heaven; the followers
redress for wrong? So is war. of Jesus since the reign of Con-

Similar observations might be stantine may be emphatically made in comparing public wars called a "little flock.”* And if with the ancient custom of pri. in the class of manslayers God vate war. In each of the cus- shall include all who have been toms success depends more on instigaters and encouragers of one skill, courage, and force, than on or other of the seven sanguinary the principles of humanity, and customs, and shall make no al. equity. For success as often at- lowance for the influence of detends the offender as the injured. lusion, we may with the deepest To a considerate


it concern exclaim, “who then can would be shocking to think how be saved!” great a part of mankind must

Nlustrations of passages in the New Testament, which refer to senti-
ments &c. among the Jews, in the time of our Lord.

es, in which the law and the prophLuke vi. 12, “And it came to ets were read and expounded, pass in those days, that he went and the people instructed in the out into a mountain to pray, and duties of their religion. They continued all night in prayer to were also built within the cities. God."

"Moses hath of old time," says The Jews, beside their taher. Luke, “in every city, them that bacle, or temple, which was the preach bim, being read in the synonly place for sacrifice, had two agroguesevery Sabbath.(Arts xv. other places for religious exercis. 21 ) But a proseucha, or house es; proseuchas, or houses of pray- of prayer, was a plot of ground, er, and synagogues. The differ. encompassed by a wall, or by ence between these places was, some other means enclosed, and that synagogues were covered ed- open above; and as the naine inifices, like our houses and charche ports, was used only for prayer.

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These houses of prayer were ne.. come to Philippi, on tbe Sabbath ver built in the cities; but in the day they went out of the city, by fields, or by a river side, or on a river side, where prayer was the mountains, and in them, as wont to be made; aceording to the in the temple, every one prayed Syriae, where there was perceived apart, for himself.

It was into to be a house of prayer. The o. one of these proseuchas that our riginal expression implies, that it Lord retired, when he went up was a proseucha, or Jewish house into a mountain to pray; and the of prayer. last expression of the evangelist of the origin of these places of would have been more accurately worship, we know nothing. The rendered, he continued all night venerable Joseph Mede mainin a proseucha, or a house of pray- tains, with his usual learning,

that the sanctuary of the Lord, in Josephus has preserved a de. Sichem, or Shechem, in which cree of the city of Halicarnassus, Joshua took a great stone, and set permitting the Jews to build pro-, it up there, (Josh. xxiv. 26.) and seuchas; in which it is said, “we to which he called an assembly ordain that the Jews, who desire of the people, was a proseucha; it, both men and women, do ob- or house of prayer, which the serve the Sabbath, and perform Israelites, after they had subsacred rites according to the Jew. dued the country, had erected ish laws, and build proseuchas by at the very place where God the sea side, according to the cus- first appeared to Abraham, tom of their country; and if any where the patriarch built his man, magistrate or private per- first altar after he came into son, should molest them, he shall Canaan, and where God had pay a fine to the city.”

And said to him, unto thee will I Philo Judæus says, applauding give this land. This is not inthe clemency of Angustus Cæsar, deed certain; but the conjecture She knew the Jews had their pro- is ingenious, and not improbably seuchas, and were accustomed to just. assemble in them, especially on But I would not willingly conthe Sabbath; yet that he had ne. fine attention, even for a mover molested them,as had Caius." medt, to a subject or a fact of It appears indeed, that in the mere useless speculation. We time of our Lord, the word pro-' are told by the Evangelist that seucha, or house of prayer, com- our Lord, having continued all prehended also synagogues; yet night in a house of prayer, when twice in the New Testament it it was day, called his disciples, seems to have retained its orig. and of them chose twelve, whom inal, and limited signification. he also named apostles. The The first is that which we have connexion of these circumstances cited at the head of this number. is most interesting and instrucThe other is in the 13th verse of tive. The choice of his apostles the 16th chapter of Acts, where is preceded by a whole night of we are told that when Paul, and prayer. And how forcibly are those who were with him, were we taught in this conduct of

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