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ety in Oxford-The Introductory Pray.

Obituary. er by the Rev. Mr Lane of Sturbridge: Sermon by Rev. Mr. Whip.

Died in Plainfield, Conn. 13th of Feb.

Rev. Joel Bene lict, D D. aged 72, ple of Charlton, from Matt. v. 16; In. stalling Prayer by Rev. Mr. Mills of pastor of the congregational church in

that town. Sutton; the Charge by Rev. Mr. Goffe of Milbury; the Right Hand of Fellow.

In Huntington, Conn. 16th of Feb. ship by Rev. Mr. Pond of Ward; and

Rev. David Ély D.D. aged 66, and in

the 43d of his ministry. Concluding Prayer by Rev. Mr. Wil. liams of Dudley

In Barrington, Rev. Samuel WatIn Cape Elizabeth, Maine, Rev.

son, aged 43, for 18 years pastor of William Gregg.

the Congregational Church in that Nov. 27, 1815, by the Presbytery of ell

. aged 63. a minister of the Society

town.- In Philadelphia, Arthur How. Geneva, the Rev. Ebenezer Fitch D.D. late president of Williamstown Col.

of Friends -In Monteville, Conn. Hop. lege, pastor of the Congregation of

William Hillhouse, aged 88. He was W. Bloomfield, N. Y. On the 17th

in the Conn Legislature more than 50 of Jan. 1816, the same presbytery in

years in succession.-In Seabrook, stalled Rev Comfort Williams, pas

N.H. Comfort Collins, aged one huntor of the Congregation of Gates, in

dred and five years and three months. the village of Rochester, N. Y. On the

She was for many years a minister in 31st a committee of the presbytery of the Society of Friends.-In Rehoboth, Geneva installed Rev. William Clark,

Hon. Stephen Bullock, aged 80.-In pastor of the congregation at Wolcott.

Charlestown, Mr. Giles Alexander, aged 65.


Confidence in God. - DELIGHTFULL thought! my God is nigh, I bow, my God, before thy throne, My Father and my Friend;

I own thy rod is just, He knows the sorrows I endure

Make me to know thy promised grace; And will deliverance send.

In thee is all my trust.

Though he afflicts to try his saints,

Corrects when they have need; Yet he displays a father's heart,

He pities while they bleed.

Then will I speak before the world,

Thy wonderous love proclaim,
I'll urge transgressors to reform,
And saints to praise thy name.


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On cruelty to Beasts.
A Man of kindness, to his beast is kind,
But brutal actions show a brutal mind;
Remember, he who made thee, made the brute,
Who gave thee speech and reason, formed him mutes
He can't complain-but God's all seeing eye
Beholds thy cruelty, and hears his cry;
He was design’d thy servant and thy drvdge;
But know that his Creator is thy JUDGE. Amer. Mag.

Candidates for the ministry in Cambridge and its vicinity.
Mr. Ed. W. Andrews, Newburyport. Mr. Thomas Prentiss, Cambridge.
Mr. Francis Jackson, Cambridge. Mr. Hiram Weston, Duxbury.
Mr. David Reed, do.

Mr. Samuel Clarke, Cambridge.
Mr. Joseph Allen, do.

Mr. Henry Ware, jun. do. Mr. Jonatban P. Dabney, do,

Mr. Rufus Hurlbut, dos Mr. Samuel Gilman, do.

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No. IV.

During his reign, the project of In the preceding Number, the the Crusades for the recovery history of our ancestors was of Jerusalem became popular in brought down to the time of Wil- Europe. An enthusiasm for what liam the Conqueror. His reign was termed the holy war, was so was little adapted to the im. general and so violent, that froin provement of society, either in the history of those times, it knowledge or virtue. He was might be suspected, that the peoindeed professedly a Christian, ple of Europe had been cursed but if his character and conduct with a general insanity. Never have not been misrepresented by perhaps in any other instance historians, he might with more since the flood, was a raving ene propriety have been called a thusiasm so general, so lasting, savage tyrant, than a Christian or so fatal. All orders of men prince.

deeming the Crusades the only His rapacity, injustice, and road to heaven, enlisted themcruelty provoked revolts, tu. selves under these sacred banmults and insurrections; and these pers, and were impatient to open were quelled by violence, mur. the way with their sword to the der and desolation. The for- holy city.” mer landholders were stripped It is indeed stated, that in the of their property, to gratify the reign of William Rufus the peoNorman invaders, and the coun. ple of England were less infecttry was filled with crimes and ed with the general frenzy than

“Contumely seems to the neighboring nations. The have been added to oppression, reasons assigned are these, that and the natives were universally the Normans were afraid to reduced to such a state of mean- leave their conquests in England, ness, that the English name be- and the king was too selfish to came a term of reproach.” Big- eneourage the holy war. land.

Henry 1.succeeded Rufus, A.D. William the Conqueror died, 1100. In bis reign, “to kill a and was succeeded by his son, stag, was as eriminal as to kill William Rufus, A. D. 1087. a man.-Stealing was first made Vol. IV, No. 4.




capital in his reign.-False coin- ensued. This scene of murder ing was severely punished by began in London, and the exam: Henry. Nearly fifty criminals ple was followed in other parts of this kind were at one time of the kingdom. In York' five hanged or mutilated.-— The dead. hundred Jews fled to a castle for ly feuds, and the liberty of pri- safety; but finding themselves unvate revenge were still continu. able to defend the place, they ed, and were not yet wholly il. first killed their wives and chil. legal.” Ilist Eng, vol. i. p. 362. dren, then set fire to the buiid.

King Stephen began to reign, ings and perished in the flames, 1135. “This event,” says Big. rather than to fall into the hands land, “involved the kingdom in a of their merciless persecutors. civil

war, which continued almost The gentry, who were indebted the whole of his reign. It would to the Jews, ran to the catherequire a voluine to enter in dral where tlie bonds were kept, detail of those commotions, which and made a solemn bonfire of the during the calamitous period of papers before the altar. thirteen years rendered England Richard valued himself as a a scene of carnage and devasta- Christian warrior-he had the tion. Sieges and battles, in- Crusade delirium, and conduct. trigues and cabals, treachery and ed an expedition to the holy violence, the violation of oaths, land. But the state of morals and the tergiversations of bish: in England during his reign, was ops and barons, constitute the deplorable indeed. In 1196, the history of this anarchical reign.” disorders in London were dreadVol. i. p. 149.


“There seemed to be formHenry II. was successor to ed so regular a conspiracy among Stephen, and began to reign 415+. the numerous malefactors, as In his reign “it was a custom iu threatened the city with destrucLondon for great nu.nbers to the tion.” "Murders were daily amount of one huodred or more, committed in the streets, hous. the sons and relations of consid- es were broken open and pillag. erable citizens, to form them- ed in day light;" and so numeselves into a licensious confedor- rous were the disturbers of the acy, to break into rich huuses peace, and so powerful the comand pluniler them-tu rob and bination, that the magistrates murder the passengers, and to

were afraid or unable to execute commit with impunity all sorts the laws. of disorder. By these crimes it King John began to reign 1199. had become so dangerous to walk “The charater of this prince is the streets by night, that the nothing but a complication of citizens durst no more venture vices equally mean and odiousabroad after sun-set, than if they ruinous to himself and destruchad been exposed lo the excur. tive to his people.” His fully

. sions of a public enemy." p. 487. and wickedness involved the na

In 1189, Richard I, commenc- tion in a civil war, and spread ed his reign, and a horrible mas desolation and misery through sacre of the Jews immediately the country,

1253, may

But as

Henry III. ascended the throne In the reign of Henry, the sur. 1216. The character of the ru- viring Jews were still oppressed lers and the clergy, as late as and persecuted At different

be gainered from a perio:is, an absurd accusation few facts. Heary was in want had been brought against that of money, and that he might be people—ihat they had crucified sure of obtaining it from the a child in derision of the sufferparlia nent, he made "the vow ings of Christ. This story was of a Crusade,"and then “demand. revived in England, and made ed assistance in that pious en- the pretext for hangin; eigen terprize.” He also made prom. Jews--whuse money was probably ises to redress some grievances,

wanted. of which the clergy had com. In 1249, two merchants came plained.

he had not to the king, and complained that been careful to keep his past they had vee: spulled of their promises, “they required that he goods by certain robbers, ubium

whom should ratify the Great Charter ihey knew, because they saw in a manner still more authentic their faces every day in his and solemn, than any which he court; that like practices prehad hitherto employed.”.

vailed all over England, and “All the prelates and abbots travellers were continually robo were assembled: they held burn- bed, bound, wounded and muring tapers in their hands; the dered;—that these crimes escapGreat Charter was read before ed with impunity, because the them; they denounced the sen- ministers of justice themseives tence of excoinmunication against were in a conspirary with the every one who should thenceforth robbers - The king ordered a jule violate that fundamental law; ry to try the robbers; and though they threw their tapers on the the jury were men of property, ground, and exclaimed-May the they were found to be in a consoul of every one who incurs this federacy with the felons, and acsentence, so stink and corrupt in quitted them. Henry, in a rage, hưll.The king bore a part in caused the jury to be imprisoned, this ceremony, and subjoined and ordered another to be sum- . "So help me God; I will keep moned, which gave a verdiet q

. all these articles inviolate, as I gainst the criminals. Many of am a man, as I am a Christian, the king's household were found as I am a knight, and as I am a to be in the confederacy. king crowned and anointed.” Edward I began to reign A. N. But, as might reasonably have 1272. “The various kinds of

“ been expected, this profane and male factors, the murderers, rob- . inpious oath was son violated. bers, incendiaries, ravishers and What could be better evidence of plunderers, had become so mua barbarous age or a barbarous merous, that the ordinary minis. state of society, than that the ters of justice were afraid to clergy were capable of being con- execute the laws against them. cerned in such horrid impreca- The king found it necessary to tions?

provide an extraordinary remedy

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for the evil.” He appointed their whole property -No less commissioners, and gave them

than fifteen thousand Jews were power to inquire into disorders at this time robbed of their ef. and crimes of all kinds, and to fects, and banished the king- , inflict the proper punishments. dom.” Hume. But the king himself appears

As Edward lived to 1307, we to have been the greatest robber have now before us a specimen and murderer in the kingdom. of the state of morals among our Such was biş avarice and his ancestors about five hundred hatred of the Jews, that he caus- years ago. As to religion they ed two bundred and eighty of were papists. Whether the pres. them to be hanged, on the pre- ent generation, either in Great text that they had adulterated Britain or the United States, the coin. Sometime after this may be regarded as a degenerate horrid deed, the king resolved to race, when compared with their

' “purge the kingdom of that ba- ancestors prior to 1300, the reated race, and to seize to himself der will judge.

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Illustrations of passages in the New Testament, which refer to senti,
ments fc. among the Jews, in the time of our Savior.

by God, his Father. The twelve Luke vi. 13. “When it was day, whom he chose were his aposhe called his disciples; and of tles, as he was the apostle of them he chose twelve, whom also God. "As my Father hath sent he named apostles.

me, even so send l you.(John APOSTLES were messengers; XX. 21.) “The Father commit. and among the Jews, all messen- ted all judgment unto the Son;" gers were called 'n so, apos. (John v. 22) and, said our Lord tles. The Talmudists apply the to these apostles, "ye which word to the rulers of the syna- haye followed me in the regengogues, who were sent to receive eration, when the Son of man the tenths, and other tributes. shall sit in the throne of his glo. They had letters of attorney froin ry, ye also shall sit upon twelve those who sent them; and hence thrones, judging the twelve tribes it became a maxim among the of Israel.(Matth. xix. 28.) Jews, every man's apostle is as Christ is the corner stone of the himself. To this our Lord seems cburch; (Matt. xxi. 42,) and the to have referred, when he said, apostles and prophets are its He that receiveth you, receiveth strong foundation. (Eph. ii, 20.) me; and he that receiveth me, re- And as our Lord professed to ceiveth léim that sent me. (Matt. speak and to act, only by the X. 40.)

power and wisdom which he re. Our Lord himself is called an ceived from his Father; his aapostle, (Heb. iii. 1.) and speaks postles, in like manner, attributof himself continually, as sent ed to him all their capacities of

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