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title of Elements of Military Art and Science.' In the same year he was ordered to California, where he attained the rank of brevet captain in 1847, and of captain in 1853. He served on the lower Californian coast as one of the staff of Commodore Shubrick, the commander of the Pacific Squadron, during the war between Mexico and the United States.
Congress having failed to provide a new government for California, to replace that which existed before its annexation to the United States, General Riley, acting under the instructions of the Secretary of War of the United States, assumed the administration of civil affairs in that State, not as a military governor, but as the executive of the existing civil government, and on a Convention being summoned by General Riley, as the Governor, in June 1849, for the purpose of framing a constitution for California, Mr. Halleck, then Secretary of State for California, was chosen one of the delegates for Monterey, and discharged his trust with great ability. In October of the same year the delegates having terminated their labours, submitted a plan of government for approval, on which occasion the Governor publicly declared :— My success in the affairs of California is mainly owing to the efficient aid rendered to me by the Secretary of State. He has stood by me in all emergencies; to him I have always appealed when at a loss myself, and he has never failed me.'
Although deeply engaged in the affairs of the Constitution, Mr. Halleck found time to take part in other pursuits, and as Director-General of the New Almaden Quicksilver Mines, acquired a practical knowledge of mining.
In 1854 he retired from the army-Cedant arma toga ! and as the leading member of a firm of lawyers practised law in San Francisco, devoting himself to the study of the laws and Constitution which, as delegate, he had taken so active a part in producing. He was also President of the Railway Company. It was during this interval of peace that he published the present work.
On the breaking out of the Civil War, Mr. Halleck cast aside the toga and again assumed the sword. He was one of the four Majors-General first appointed, and on the recommendation of General Scott, was nominated to the command of the military department of the West, with headquarters at St. Louis. To his military skill may be attributed in great measure the success which attended the arms of the Federal forces. Having commanded in the field in the Corinth campaign, during the early part of 1862, he was appointed General-in-Chief of the Armies of the United States, on July II of the same year, and occupied that post till 1864, during which time all negroes and newspaper correspondents were forbidden access to the ranks of his army. In 1864 MajorGeneral Halleck was named Chief of Staff of the War Department at Washington, which appointment he held till April 1865, when he took command of the military division of the James, with headquarters at Richmond, changing that for the military division of the Pacific in the following August, and finally leaving the latter in March 1869, to take command of the military division of the South, with headquarters at Louisville, Kentucky, in which city he died, January 9, 1872, at the age of fifty-five.
Mr. Halleck was one of those persons who are able to adapt themselves to the varying circumstances of a change of life and habits; when a soldier, he was completely a soldier ; when a civilian, not a vestige of the soldier remained. In stature, he was below the medium height, but was straight and active; brisk and energetic in his gait; his nose, delicate and well formed; his forehead, ample; his mouth, by no means devoid of humour; his eyes, hazel and clear; his glance, keen and penetrating.
In addition to the attainments before mentioned, he was well versed in the French and Spanish languages. He also published in 1859 Mining Laws of Spain and Mexico,' and in 1864 edited a translation of Jomini's Life of Napoleon,' besides being the author of some smaller works.