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intellectual capacity, whilst in a moral point of view they are inferior to others; yet there are exceptions in both cases.

“The number of children in the School at present is 45; viz., Boys, 32; and Girls, 13.

7 Boys are sons of Proselytes.

do. unbaptized Jews.

do. native Christians. 1

do. is an Abyssinian Christian. 1

do. is a German Christian.
3 Girls are daughters of Proselytes.

do. of unbaptised Jews.

do. of native Christians. “ The branches of instruction are as follows :1. Scripture History, (English and Arabic.)

2. Literal exposition of the miracles and parables of Christ (English and Arabic).

3. Geography (English and Arabic).

4. Reading and spelling lessons (English, German, and Arabic).

5. Writing copies, and dictation (English, German, and Arabic).

6. Translation from Arabic into English, oral and in writing (Arabic and English).

7. Arithmetic. 8. Geometry (English). 9. Natural History (English and Arabic). 10. Singing 11. Needlework and knitting (for the Girls)."


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ABOUT two months ago, it happened that a Jewish lad was removed from the Mission School of the Scotch Church (at Constantinople), because the Gospel was read in that School, alternately with the Old Testament. Immediately upon his removal, the eldest son of that Jewish family, and the ornament of their house, was taken ill, and was soon past all hope of recovery. When the young man saw that he must die, he felt the need of prayer for his poor departing soul. And whom do you think he called to his bedside? The rabbies of the synagogue? No. Or did he beg his parents to read their Jewish prayers over him from their prayer-book? No. There are two little girls, scholars of the Scotch Mission School for Italian Jewish girls, who are known to be well instructed in Christian doctrine, and one of whom, though small, is a believer in Jesus, though she has never been able to profess him publicly. Now these two girls the dying youth called to his bed, and begged them to pray for him! He supposed that they were better able to pray, than the old, proud, learned, infidel rabbies. And he was quite right. Now let me ask you two questions. 1. Ought not you, who read and know the Gospel, in a Christian land,ought you not all to have the spirit of prayer, and be able to pray for the souls of perishing infidels? 2. Ought you not all to pray for these Jewish Schools in foreign lands, where the children of wicked Jewish families are taught to believe in Christ, and to pray?

W. G. SCHAUFFLER. Constantinople, November, 1851. (From the “ Youth's Day-Spring,” published by the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions,)




More perilous times menaced the Jews of Castile and the rest of Spain under John I. (1379—1390.) The Cortes assembled at Valladolid, Soria, and Burgos, passed resolutions tending to deprive the Jews of all participation in the government of the State, or the management of its finances ; but the King, asserting his own immediate and exclusive rights over this people, continued to grant them his protection.

In consequence of a singular circumstance, however, their synagogue was deprived of the right of jurisdiction it had hitherto enjoyed. The chronicler of King John I. relates that some Jews, who considered themselves aggrieved by one of their own persuasion at court, named Don Joseph Pichon, contrived to obtain a royal mandate, granting them the services of an alguazil to execute a sentence of death. As the King of Castile, according to existing customs, had often granted such mandates for the execution of sentence passed by the Jewish tribunal, he made no difficulty in signing the document thus presented, quite ignorant that it was intended for Pichon, one of the most devoted ministers of the King, his father. The sentence of the Jewish magistrates was effectually executed by the alguazil of the King, at Seville. When the King heard what had taken place, he instituted an inquiry, put to death all who had been either directly or indirectly concerned in this matter,—and deprived the Jews of the jurisdiction they had hitherto possessed.

* Da Costa's “ Israel and the Gentiles,"

Under Henry III. the Jews, as before, held offices of State; and one in particular, Don Meir, physician to the King, was high in honour and trust; yet, in the same reign, especially during the minority of the King, several violent outbreaks and bloody persecutions were raised against the Jewish inhabitants of different cities.

At Seville, the Archbishop in person stirred up the populace, by a sermon, to fall upon the Jews, and the tumult was with difficulty quelled by the severe measures of the civil and military authorities.

In the year following, 1391, these disturbances were repeated, and the Jewish quarter attacked and burnt to ashes. This fearful example spread, as by contagion, to the towns of Cordova, Madrid, Toledo, over the whole of Catalonia, and even to the Isle of Majorca, where John I. of Arragon caused its leaders to be severely punished. The number of Jews said to have lost their life is estimated at ten thousand, and the places in which the outbreak occurred are numbered at seventy. Many fled to Africa to escape persecution, among whom was the Rabbi Bar Zemach, of Oran, celebrated for his learned writings, and his elegies on the events of that period. Others in the terror of the moment went over to the Romish Church.

The first years of the reign of John II., who succeeded his father while yet a child (1406), were unfavourable to the Jews. A royal mandate, dated Valladolid, 1412, in a series of twenty-four articles, contained the most oppressive enactments which had ever been promulgated against them, since the time of the later Visigothic kings. The Jews, and also the Moors, were thenceforth to confine themselves to a separate quarter, on pain


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of death, not to converse with Christians, or to have Christians in their service,—not to practise as physicians or apothecaries,-not to be high treasurer to the King, or steward to any of the nobility,--not even to work at trades for the Christians. They were no longer to have judges of their own nation, nor to observe their peculiar laws and customs; they might not even tax themselves for the maintenance of the synagogue, nor share as they liked the taxes imposed by the King. They were ordered to wear a peculiar dress, the form even of which was prescribed to them. The title of Don was forbidden, and the power of quitting the kingdom at will, taken from them. These laws were too absurd to be put in force, and the Jews knew that they possessed too much power and influence to be compelled to submit to them. Yet, though under a different name, they continued, during the reign of John II. (for nearly fifty years), and that of his son Henry IV. (from 1454 to 1474), to retain their former connexion with the State. They were baptized in crowds in different parts of Spain, either in consequence of intolerable persecution, or, in some cases, of real conviction, of which we shall soon mention some bright examples. These families formed an entirely new body, who were long distinguished from the old Christian population by the designation of Conversos,” or New Christians. The influence of these converts became, in the fifteenth century, as extensive and important as that of the unconverted or unbaptized Jews of earlier times. They held the chief offices of state, and were about the person of the King, being especially favoured by Don Alvar de Lema, the powerful minister of John II.

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