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and his lady are instructed in Christianity by one of the French reformed ministers at Haarlem. He is now delivering here, in Amsterdam, every Thursday evening, in public, a most interesting course of lectures on Christianity, which are attended by some of the most influential and respectable Jews. That this causes no common stir, and at the same time occasions no small perplexity to the rabbies, especially in the Portuguese synagogue, can easily be imagined. It is only another proof that the Jews are destined by God to become the promulgators of His kingdom; for as soon as a Jew finds Christ, or I should rather say, is found of Him in His sovereign grace, he receives true emancipation, and he cannot resist running to his brethren, and telling them, as one of old did, “We have found Him, of whom Moses in the law and the prophets did write-Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph.' This is a remarkable fact, and entirely in harmony with the character of the Jew. Such preaching, or let it be called by what title one may please, brings life to the sleeping Christians, and rouses them to earnestness. It seems like a corroboration of what was spoken by the Apostle of old, “If the casting away of them be the reconciling of the world, what shall the receiving of them be, but life from the dead !'
* If," Mr. Pauli adds, “I had had nothing more to cheer me, amidst the labours and anxieties of the past year, than in hearing Salvador's lectures on the truths of Christianity, and Salvador's public testimony that in no other name is salvation and happiness to be found but in the adorable name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth ; hearing him most eloquently proving to demon
stration that no nation and commonwealth can be governed and brought to real happiness, without having the Gospel as a foundation of all their laws and enactments, it would have been sufficient to lead me to bless and praise the Lord for what he has done.'
Mr. Pauli has had many and great discouragements during the year. Out of fifteen inquirers, but one was baptized; yet the good work progresses, and a congregation of believing Israelites bear witness to the truth, that God has not cast away his people.
We have been able to present but a very imperfect view of only a few facts in the Report, our space not allowing more, and our readers must not imagine that they have here even an abstract of the Society's Report. The greatest encouragement which it presents we have not yet been able to notice. This is found in the wonderful movements of the mind of the Jewish people, and we must reserve this for our next number.
In every station there will be found something to encourage, and to show that God's work does not stand still. This, too, will answer our fourth question, What are the prospects which are open before us?
Success should lead to gratitude, and still more earnest endeavour. Trials and disappointments, to patient perseverance and earnest believing prayer.
Oh, that the salvation of Israel were come out of Zion, that the Lord would turn the captivity of Jacob.”
(To be continued.)
THE JEWS IN BARBARY.* We cannot but notice one striking fact in relation to the banishment and ill-treatment of the Jewish people. Ere a century had passed, the flower of the youthful nobility of Portugal, with the King Sabastian at their head, were slain or made prisoners on the same coast of Africa to which the unfortunate Jews had, not long before, been so barbarously driven. Happy, by comparison, was the lot of those among the Christian captives who fell into the hands of African Israelites, from whom alone they received any compassion and assistance in their misfortunes.
A Jewish writer of the present day, not himself a descendant of the Sephardim, has said, “ that of all the exiles and all the misfortunes which have lighted on the head of Israel, since his crown has fallen, none was so terrible, so eventful, or so fatal, as their expulsion from the Peninsula.” In fact, the dispersion caused by this catastrophe is, in some respects, even more remarkable than that which followed the destruction of Jerusalem, because this second dispersion speedily scattered the Sephardim also over every quarter of the globe. Shortly after the edicts of 1492 and 1497, Jews and new Christians were to be met with in the newlydiscovered territories of America, both in the Spanish possessions and in Brazil, which had fallen to the share of the Portuguese. In Africa, Asia, and the Turkish Empire, their families and synagogues have been established, and have continued to the present day, entirely apart from all other races of their nation.
* From Da Costa's “Israel and the Gentiles.”
From time immemorial, Africa has been an eventful country to Israel. Egypt, where their national history first began, was a resort for many of the nation in the times of the Grecian and Roman monarchies, as well as in the Middle Ages, while under the sway of Mahomedanism. From the days of Maimonides, Cairo, Damietta, and other Egyptian towns, have been celebrated for their rabbinical seminaries and Talmudic learning. We cannot doubt that a great number of the Spanish exiles sought refuge in a country already resorted to by numerous caravans of Jewish pilgrims, visiting the synagogue of that spot which popular tradition fixes upon the birth-place of their great lawgiver. In the western parts of Africa, especially in the states of Morocco, the exiled Jews settled in great numbers. A communication had long been kept up between Spain and that country ; and now that an abode on the north side of the straits of Gibraltar was prohibited, nothing was more natural than their migration to the opposite coast. At Tripoli, Tunis, Algiers, Mequînez, Oran, Fez, and in the whole empire of Morocco, the Jews from Spain found numerous synagogues, some of which were noted for their men of learniny. Yet, even here the Jewish population from the Peninsula has kept itself aloof and separate from the Jews of Barbary and from the European or Frank Jews. They have never attained in Africa the high position they had held in Spain, or have subsequently reached in many parts of Europe. Though allowed liberty of con science, and even protected by the Emperor', and the Barbary Beys and Deys, they were exposed both to the immense exactions of the
rulers and to the ill-treatment of a fanatic populace. They were rigorously compelled to wear the black turban, and different coloured boots, that they might not be confounded with the Mahomedan population. Thus many circumstances concurred to depress the condition of that portion of the Jewish population of Spain who settled in Barbary. Here, however, as elsewhere, some individuals of that nation were employed by the sovereigns of the country on important missions, and in affairs of state. Towards the end of the sixteenth century, Don Samuel Palache, was sent by the Emperor of Morocco as his agent to the Hague, where he died in 1616, and was followed to the grave by the Prince Maurice, the States-General, and the Councillors of the United Provinces.
In 1642, Spanish Israelite, named Don Joseph Toledano, was charged by Muley Ismael, the Prince of Morocco, to conclude å treaty of alliance with the Republic of the Netherlands; the same Israelite had before rendered important services to this prince, when he first succeeded his brother, Muley Mahomet. Under the rule of both these brothers, the Jews and their synagogues enjoyed peculiar prosperity, and we find mention made of a prince of the captivity at their head. The affairs of finance, and the negociations with European powers were almost entirely entrusted to the Jews. In 1775 an Israelite, named Masahod de la Mar,* took up his abode, and established his family at Amsterdam, after being sent on a similar mission from Morocco to England and the United Provinces. At Oran, which was
* See Rouen's History of the Jews in Holland.