From Savage to Negro: Anthropology and the Construction of Race, 1896-1954
University of California Press, 23 nov. 1998 - 313 pages
Lee D. Baker explores what racial categories mean to the American public and how these meanings are reinforced by anthropology, popular culture, and the law. Focusing on the period between two landmark Supreme Court decisions—Plessy v. Ferguson (the so-called "separate but equal" doctrine established in 1896) and Brown v. Board of Education (the public school desegregation decision of 1954)—Baker shows how racial categories change over time.
Baker paints a vivid picture of the relationships between specific African American and white scholars, who orchestrated a paradigm shift within the social sciences from ideas based on Social Darwinism to those based on cultural relativism. He demonstrates that the greatest impact on the way the law codifies racial differences has been made by organizations such as the NAACP, which skillfully appropriated the new social science to exploit the politics of the Cold War.
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Chapter 1 History and Theory of a Racialized Worldview
Chapter 2 The Ascension of Anthropology as Social Darwinism
Chapter 3 Anthropology in American Popular Culture
Holding on to Hierarchy
W E B Du Bois and Franz Boas
Chapter 6 The New Negro and Cultural Politics of Race
Chapter 7 Looking behind the Veil with the Spy Glass of Anthropology
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African Americans Alain Locke anthro anthropology argued arguments began Bell Curve Black Boas’s Bois’s Brinton Brown century Chicago Civil Rights color Congress Democrats desegregation developed discourse on race Education ethnology eugenics evolution explained Fauset federal ﬁeld ﬁnancial ﬁrst Franz Boas Frederic Ward Putnam Harlem Harlem Renaissance Harvard Herskovits History Houston Howard Hurston Ibid ican ideas of racial immigrants inﬂuenced inﬂuential institutions JAFL Jim Crow John Wesley Powell journal Justice LDEF legislation lynching Marshall Museum Myrdal NAACP National Native American Negro folklore North organizations Plessy political Popular Science Monthly president published Putnam racial categories racial equality racial inferiority racism reﬂected Republican scholars scientiﬁc scientists segregation Shaler signiﬁcance Slavery Social Darwinism Social Darwinist social science society sociological South southern speciﬁc Supreme Court Thurgood Marshall tion United University Press W. E. B. Du Bois Washington White William women world’s fair York Zora Neale Hurston