« PrécédentContinuer »
VIEW OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS.
The period that has elapsed since the FRANCE. In France some remarkapeace of 1815, has been as remarkable for ble changes have lately taken place in the repose which has been enjoyed, by the government. The ministry, at the most of the nations of Europe, as that head of which was the Count de Villele, which preceded it was, for the desolat- had by a number of acts of doubtful exing wars and sweeping revolutions in pediency, become extremely unpopular, which those nations were involved. and although they were supported by a The history of this period however, is decided majority in the Chamber of Dehardly less worthy of being studied, puties, they had been outvoted in some and the events of it, though less bril- favorite measures in the Chamber of liant, and farther removed from observa- Peers. To secure an ascendency in this tion, are producing important effects, body, the extraordinary measure of crenot only on the welfare of the present ating a large number of new Peers was generation, but on the destiny of nations resorted to, and about the same time the in future ages. It is therefore impor- Chamber of Deputies, for reasons not tant to take notice of these events, that fully understood, was dissolved, and a we may learn from them something of new election was ordered. This Chamthe prospects of the future, as well as ber would not have expired, by the limendeavour to reap from them some ben- itation of the charter, for three years, efit to ourselves.
the duration of the Chamber, after each It is not our purpose to attempt a re- election, unless dissolved by the royal view of this interesting period of his authority, being seven years. It has tory, nor even a regular narrative of been supposed that the dissolution was passing events. Our design is merely to advised by the ministers, because they place before the reader a record of a thought the chance of a new Chamber, few of the most prominent transactions which should be favorable to their of the day, interspersed sometimes with views, would be better now, in an elecsuch remarks as may seem appropriate tion brought forward so suddenly as to to the occasion. This will be done in give little opportunity to the opposition the most cursory manner, as the space to organzie their strength, than at the which we can devote to this object will legal expiration of the Chamber. The be extremely limited. The present ar- election however, contrary to the generticle will be contined to a mere enumer- al expectation, resulted in the choice of ation of some of the most prominent a large majority of members known to political events which have come to our be opposed to the ministers, though knowledge within the last few weeks. many of them attached to parties here
tofore strongly opposed to one another. GREAT BRITAIN. The ministry In this state of things, betore the assemformed on the death of Mr Canning, un- bling of the Chambers, the ministers reder Lord Goderich, which embraced signed, and on the 5th of January a royseveral prominent individuals who had al ordonnance announced the appointbeen long in the ranks of the opposition, ment of a new ministry. A majority of met with irreconcilable difficulties, and the new cabinet however, are known to early in January Lord Goderich offered have been friends and supporters of the his resignation. The Duke of Welling- old, and whether they will be able to ton was commissioned by the king to command the confidence and support of form a new cabinet. This commission the Chamber of Deputies, remains to he executed, by excluding all the whigs, be seen. M.de Villele,and two of his col. and under the new administration. Par leagues have been raised to the peerage, liament met on the 29th of January. It which creations, with those announced is understood that the new ministry is a few weeks before, make seventynine opposed to the Catholic claims. The new members, added to the Chamber of state of the kingdom is not unprosperous. Peers. France has become involved in Trade is gradually reviving. The pro- a war with the Dey of Algiers, and has duce of the revenue of the kingdom, for blockaded the port of Algiers. the last year, presents a small increase over that of the year preceding.
SPAIN, though the insurrection in
that country is by no means suppressed, Don Pedro, emperor of Brazil, and of appears to be in a more quiet state than Don Miguel, as Regent. To this Reit was a few months ago. The king gency Don Miguel is to succeed, on his and queen have been several months ab- arrival in Portugal, and will be virtually sent from the capital on an excursion the king of Portugal, the right of his undertaken for pacifying their subjects future wife, Donna Maria Gloria, if that in the eastern part of the kingdom, and alliance should take place in fact. Of at the last accounts they were at Barce- this there is some reason to doubt, as lona, where they proposed to remain un- the latest advices from Rio Janeiro have til April. The whole kingdom is in a brought the intelligence that the young wretchedly disordered state, from the queen was dangerously ill of a bilious imbecility of the government, the igno- fever, and not expected to survive many rance and fanaticism of a great portion hours. In the event of her death, it is of the people, and the violence of the not easy to foresee what will be the contending parties. It is positively as- course of succession. serted in the late French papers that the French troops, with the exception of Russia. The latest intelligence from the garrison of Cadiz, were about to be Russia informs us of the termination of withdrawn from the kingdom,
the war with Persia. By this peace,
Russia gains, as is usual with her in all PORTUGAL. The kingdom of Portu- treaties of peace with the neighbouring gal has been for some time in an unset. states, a new accession of territory. tled state from the violence of party The war began in the invasion of the terfeeling for and against the constitution. ritory formerly ceded to Russia, by a body The constitutional party at present of Persian troops. It ends by a cession to maintains the ascendency. The crown Russia of the Khanates of Nakhitchenon the decease of the late king, devolv- ard and Erivan, bounded principally by ed by the laws of the kingdom, upon the river Araxes. The Schah of Persia his eldest son, the emperor of Brazil. also stipulates to pay a heavy pecuniary He saw fit to relinquish it in favor of his indemnity for the expenses of the war, daughter, a child of eight or nine years a part to be paid on the signature of the
Between this daughter, the treaty of peace, and the remainder at young queen, and Don Miguel her uncle, short intervals after. the second son of the late king, a contract of marriage has been entered into, TURKEY. The affairs of Turkey, with the consent of her father, Don which have for a long time engaged the Miguel, in the lifetime of his father, public attention, wear some appearance showed himself a man of uncontrollable of approaching a crisis. The Turkish passions, and apparently a very unfit government, after protracting as long as person to be entrusted with the adminis- possible the negotiations with the amtration of a government. He endeav- bassadors of Great Britain, France, and oured to place himself at the head of the Russia, finally rejected the proposition, absolute party, and to seize the reins made under the treaty of July 6, 1827, of government before his father's death. and the ambassadors demanded their He was defeated in his designs, and to passports. These were refused by the place him out of the way of other in- Turkish government, but the ambastrigues he was sent abroad on his tra- sadors withdrew from Constantinople, vels. He has been residing some time without molestation, on the 8th of Deat the court of the emperor of Austria, cember, and set out for their respective where, after some hesitation, he consent countries. No measures had been ed to swear to the constitution, by which adopted, at the date of the last accounts, a representative government is secured in consequence of this rupture of the neto the people of Portugal, and the pow- gotiation, but it was understood that the er of the crown is put under salutary Grand Seignior was making preparations restrictions. He is now on his return to for hostilities, with as much activity as Portugal, and at the date of the last in- possible, and that a large Russian army telligence from Europe, he was in Eng- was stationed on the Pruth, which is the Jand, whence he was to embark in a boundary of that country on the side of short time for Lisbon. The government, Turkey. Whether hostilities were likely in the mean time, has been administered to ensue, was left to conjecture. There since the death of the late king, by the is nothing in the treaty of July 6, that princess Isabella Maria, the sister of necessarily implies that the parties to it VOL. V.NO. 1.
would take an active part in the war, in the Count Capo D'Istria, a native of a contingency like that which is now Greece, of distinguished character, who presented. But the promptness with has been, for many years, in high and which they enforced, by the battle of responsible employment in the service Navarino, the measures which they had of Russia, and who has been appointed agreed upon, shows that they will not president of the Grecian Republic, for be backward in resorting to force, if the term of seven years, with extraorthey find it necessary for effecting the dinary powers. Since his appointment object which they have in view, the pa- he has visited the capitals of Russia, cification of Greece. It is perhaps pro. Great Britain, and France, and he left bable, that they will contine themselves, the latter country several months since for the present at least, to preventing for Greece, it is supposed with the ap. the sending of reinforcements by sea, probation of the three governments, and and the establishment of commercial re- in possession of considerable resources lations with the Greeks, as this course for giving efficiency to the measures of appears to be particularly pointed out in his administration, The Greeks of all the treaty above alluded to; yet there parties, place great confidence in him, are some reasons for believing, that a and look forward to his arrival as the Russian army will immediately enter signal for the restoration of order and the principalities, and perhaps march di- subordination in the country. It is to rectly to the Turkish capital. A Rus- be hoped that these expectations may sian army might in a short time cross be realized, and that he may succeed in the Danube, and with such a force as his patriotic design, of bestowing on his will probably be brought into the field, countrymen the blessings of liberty, if this step is resorted to, there is little regulated by laws. reason to doubt, that it might march, in spite of the resistance which it would be South AMERICA. The infant na in the power of the sultan to interpose, tions of our own continent have been far directly to the gates of Constantinople. from enjoying that tranquillity to which Should such be the result of the mea- they might have looked forward, as the sures to which the obstinacy of the Porte reward of their labors and sacrifices, in may have compelled the allies to resort, establishing their independence. In it will then be manifestly in their power Mexico, an open rebellion of a formito dictate the terms of peace--a peace dable character, was suppressed by the called for by the claims of humanity, vigor of the government, in January and by the interests of all the commer- last, and General Bravo, the Vice Presicial nations of Europe.
dent, with a number of other distin
guished individuals were made prisonGREECE. From Greece there has ers. The government had previously been no recent intelligence of moment, adopted the harsh and injudicious meaexcept that of a gallant naval action in sure of expelling from the country all the Gulf of Lepanto, in which seven persons who were natives of Spain. The Turkish vessels were destroyed, and of finances of this country are at rather a the landing of two thousand Greeks in low ebb, and the government have been the island of Scio, and the conquest of so improvident as to suffer the dividend the whole of that island, with the excep- due on a large loan contracted in Lontion of the fortresses in the harbour, don, to remain unprovided for, and conwhich at the last accounts remained in sequently unpaid. A Mexican brig of the hands of the Turks. It has been war, the Guerrero, was lately captured reported that the Greek vessels, em- by a Spanish frigate, after a long and ployed in blockading these forts, had severe action, in which the captain, been destroyed by the French squadron, Porter, a nephew of commodore Porter, in pursuance of the design of the allied and fortynine men were killed. fleet, to enforce an armistice between Central America has been long in a the parties ; but this report is not con- state of lamentable disorder, and at the firmed. It has also been reported that date of the last accounts from that counIbrahim Pacha had withdrawn the try, the inhabitants were in arms against Egyptian troops to the neighbourhood one another, the President of the repubof Modon, and that in consequence Pa- lic being at the head of one army, and tras had been compelled to surrender the Vice President, of another. Colomto the Greeks. The Greeks were ex- bia also continued in a disordered state, pecting with impatience the arrival of and the return of the Liberator, Bolivar, had not been attended with the effect of fore Congress. Unfortunately the derestoring quiet and confidence. A con- cision is likely to be very little influencgress is now in session at Ocana, en- ed by any careful consideration of the gaged in the attempt to reconcile the personal fitness, or unfitness, of the redifficulties that have long agitated the spective candidates. country. The finances are in an im- One of the subjects alluded to by the poverished state, and insufficient either President, in his Message on the openfor maintaining the credit of the govern- ing of the session of Congress, was the ment abroad or supplying its wants at negotiation with the British governhome. Arbitrary expedients have been ment for an adjustment of the boundary resorted to in some of the seaports for between the state of Maine and the prosupplying the deficiency, which have vince of New Brunswick. A statement had an injurious effect on the foreign of the question had been agreed on, for trade. In Peru, Chili, and Buenos Ayres, the purpose of referring it to the arbitraimportant changes in the government tion of a friendly government. It has have been made, the particulars of since been announced that the governwhich we must pass over.
Buenos ment resorted to, as the umpire in the Ayres, besides having suffered the in- case, is that of Russia. Our governconvenience of an entire change in her ment claims, as a part of Maine, in congovernment, is in a state of war with formity with what appear to us to be the emperor of Brazil, and the port of the obvious terms of the treaty of 1783, Buenos Ayres has been blockaded by a and also in conformity with the known Brazilian squadron for many months. limits of the province of Massachusetts The blockade however is not very Bay, (then including Maine Nova Scostrictly enforced, and the vessels of this tia and Quebec), as those limits were escountry frequently succeed in entering tablished, and clearly defined by acts of it with supplies. The war is extremely the British crown as early as 1763, the onerous to Brazil, and although carried whole territory bounded, east by a line on at great expense by the imperial running from the source of the St Croix government, it is prosecuted with little river, due north, crossing the St John, vigor or success.
and terminated by the highlands be
tween this last named river and the St UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. Ve- Lawrence, and north by the highland, ry few events have lately occurred in which divide the waters of the St John, our domestic history, of sufficient im- from those of the St Lawrence. The portance to be here noticed. In Con- British government maintains, that the gress, no measures of any importance, due north line from the St Croix should with the exception of the annual appro- terminate at the highlands south of the "priation bills, has yet been adopted, or St John, and that the northern boundadiscussed. A great number of subjects ry of Maine should follow the course of of legislation have been presented to the highlands, which divide the waters the attention of Congress, and referred of the Penobscot, from those of the St to committees. The two which have John. They consequently claim the excited the greatest interest, and which territory watered by the St John and will probably be brought into serious its branches, as belonging to the British debate, are a proposition to grant some provinces. There is now a population indemnity to the surviving officers of of about two thousand souls on the disthe revolution, for their pecuniary sacri- puted territory, consisting of persons fices, and one to increase the tariff of who have seated themselves there withduties on the import of certain classes out any title to the lands which they ocof foreign manufactures, for the purpose cupy, from either government. Over of encouraging the manufacture of those this population the government of New goods in this country. The subject of a Brunswick has recently undertaken to political nature, which engages most of exercise a right of jurisdiction, and this the public attention, is that of the next claim has given rise to a controversy of election of President. The question rather an ngry character, which has whether Mr Adams shall be again elect- produced a high degree of excitement ed, or whether Gen. Jackson shall be between the parties more immediately chosen in his place, is one on which the interested, and which it is difficult to adpublic opinion is divided, and which just, until the question of right shall be gives a direction to the debates on al. determined, which has been referred to most all subjects which are brought be. a foreign tribunal.
Died, at New York, January 21, Mrs her, and at the same time what was due GRACE WEBSTER, wife of the Hon. Dan. to herself. She was therefore the ornaiel Webster of Boston. She had accom- ment of the social circle, and it was her panied her husband as far as New York fortune to conciliate the friendship of in November last, who was on his way very many, with whom her situation in to Washington for the purpose of taking life had brought her acquainted. To his seat in the Senate of the United those who enjoyed the privilege of an States. On her arrival in New York, a intimate acquaintance with her, she was chronic disease, from which she had peculiarly dear, from the sweetness of suffered severely for several months, her disposition, the steadiness of her atbecame so alarming and painful, that tachments, and the skill with which she she was compelled to desist from the contributed to the gratitication of her further prosecution of the journey. She friends. With a sound understanding, remained at the house of a friend, Dr and a mind well instructed, with fortiCyrus Perkins, where her disease be- tude to endure adversity, and discerncame gradually more severe, until she at ment to turn prosperity to its noblest length sunk under it, and yielded up her uses--the good of those about her--with life, in humble resignation to the will of diligence and prudence in the conduct her Maker. The character of Mrs Web- of the affairs which devolved upon her, ster, calls for some public testimonial, she was enabled to sustain the trials to both from its intrinsic excellence, fitted which it had pleased God to subject her, as it was to be held up as a pattern of and to discharge in the most exemplary those graces which adorn the christian manner the duties she owed to her famicharacter, and from regard to the many ly, her friends, and to society. The affriends who, in the intercourse of society, frictions and bereavements which she and the various relations of life, have was called to suffer, did not destroy the had the happiness of being the witnes- serenity and cheerfulness of her disposises of her uncommon worth.
tion, and the sufferings of her last long She was from early life a religious and painful sickness, were endured by woman, strongly impressed with the du- her with patience, and without comties of piety, and the obligations of liv- plaint. During the whole of her sicking are ligious life; of respecting the insti- ness, she was apprized of the danger of tutions of religion, and of giving a religious her situation, but she contemplated the education to her children. In conformity prospect of its fatal termination with sewith her sense of these obligations, she dis- renity. Though she had much to live charged her various domestic and social for, and though she loved the world as duties, and regulated her employments, the workmanship of God, and as full of a and her intercourse with society. To thousand beauties of his creation, her the duties of benevolence she was pecu- prevailing feeling in the prospect of death, liarly sensible, and they were always was that of submission to the will of her discharged by her with pleasure. Very heavenly Father. She had been for sev. many persons will long remember with eral years a member of the church in gratitude the acts of disinterested kind- Brattle Street, and some of her last ness, by which she has relieved their words were expressions of affectionate sufferings, supplied their wants, or re- recollection of her esteemed pastor, and moved their embarrassments. Her man- of regret that she had been deprived of ners were remarkable for simplicity and his friendly counsels. Her remains propriety, springing less from study and were brought to Boston, and were deobservation, than from a natural sense of posited with those of two of her children, what would be agreeable to those around who had gone before her.
Page 43, line 23 from top, and line 2 of note t, for Schocltgen', read 'Schoettgen'.
48, line 16 from bottom, for that is, a member' read that is, as a member'. 52, line 2 from bottom, for has', read' says'.