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ally and collectively, for the welfare of christian probity and untiring zeal in the him who has conferred them; sincerely cause of truth, is fitted to inspire. hoping that he may long live, surrounded • In January 1825, W. H. Furness was by his friends, to enjoy that still more ordained to the pastoral care of the “First solid reward which never fails to crown Congregational Society of Unitarian virtuous and well meant endeavours--the Christians in Philadelphia,” the title under approbation of God and his conscience.” which the charter of incorporation runs.
• In 1820, Mr Eddowes gave notice of * Towards the close of 1827, the sociehis intention to discontinue his public ser- ty, being in a flourishing condition, revices in a few months. His increasing solved upon the erection of a new age and infirmities led him to take a step, church, the old one not affording suffiwhich excited “the unfeigned regret of cient accommodations. In accordance the society.” “Much,” they say, “as we with this resolution the necessary arlament the loss which we shall sustain, rangements were made, and the corner the reasons assigned by Mr Eddowes for stone of the new building was laid on the discontinuing his labors among us, par- 25th of March last. ticularly as regards the state of his health, • It is worthy of mention, that it is a render it our duty to acquiesce in the custom, universal, we believe, in Philaevent." “ We entertain," they add, “a delphia, when a church is to be erected, high sense of the very able manner in to appeal to the generosity of the comwhich Mr Eddowes has conducted the munity at large, without respect to republic services, and the truly christian ligious names. And it is but justice to example by which he has practically add that the community is never backillustrated the great duties of our holy re- ward in meeting such appeals, however ligion, and we feel the weight of a large obnoxious the peculiarities of the denomdebt of gratitude for his disinterested and ination soliciting aid, may be. In the gratuitous ministrations among us during present instance, advantage has not been a period of nearly thirteen years.” With taken of this custom, not from any doubt these sentiments they offer him “their of success, but because it has been remost respectful and sincere thanks, ac- membered that, in close connexion with companied by their warmest wishes for the injunction, “ Bear ye one another's his present welfare and future happiness.” burdens”-stands another,
• From the time that Mr Eddowes re- man bear his own burden.” tired, Mr Taylor conducted the public . Of the fourteen persons who first services until 1823. To estimate the la- formed the Unitarian society in Philadelbors of these two gentlemen, it is to be phia, only threc remain arnong its memrecollected that they had almost wholly bers; seven are dead, three have removceased to read printed sermons. Devoting ed, and one has withdrawn. themselves to original compositions for We cannot close this article, without the pulpit, they felt the importance of adverting very briefly to the prospects of theological knowledge, and a great por- Liberal opinions in the large and prospertion of their time was given to study, the ous city in which the society that has fruits of which were manifest to the so- now been the subject of notice, is estabciety.
lished. Upon this point we will make “In 1823, Mr Taylor followed the ex- only one remark. You can scarcely hear ample of Messrs Vaughan and Eddowes, a sermon in the principal churches of oliering however to perform any of the Philadelphia, that does not contain some ministerial duties that might be requisite, reference or allusion to Rational Christhe ordinary services of the Lord's day tianity. One would think, from the freexcepted. This offer was thankfully ac- quency and severity with which Unitacepted by the society, while they could rianism is attacked, that it is as rank here not suffer him “to resign the situation of as it is in Boston. Is it possible, you officiating minister, which he had so long would ask, that one small society can atand so ably filled, without tendering him tract so much notice. You would greatly their grateful acknowledgments for the err in supposing this to be the case. The benefits thus conferred." With senti- probable truth is, that there is hardly a ments of gratitude, they mingle ardent congregation in the city in which this wishes for his future welfare. Their heresy is not beginning to germinate.' resolutions upon the occasion of his resignation breathe the respect, which the • William Turner.-.We have thought high character of this gentleman for proper to inention, in connexion with
Let every the above, a singular instance of in
* Portsmouth, March 3d, 1828. tegrity exhibited by the person whose
• To Philip J. SCHUYLER, EsQ. name stan.ls prefixed, and who was long Dear Sir,-Agreeably to your request, a devoted member of the Unitarian so- I send you a few particulars, detailing a ciety in Philadelphia. The whole char- very few among the many results, arisacter of this individual bore the genuine ing from discontinuing the use of spiritmarks of christian excellence. His last uous liquors among the workmen. It illness and his death, which occurred perhaps would not be interesting to you, last summer, made a sensible impression nor is it convenient for ine, to give you a upon those who witnessed thein, and who very minute account of what I have ex. were strangers to his religious views. perienced in this way. If I understand But the circumstances respecting him, you correctly, you wish to know what which we wish particularly to record, has been the effect produced here, by are the following. He left England in excluding grog from the works, and also embarrassed circumstances. By great from the workmen's houses—and also, industry and economy, he was not only to inform you as to the manner in which able to support himself comfortably here, this was brought about, and apparently but also to satisfy all the demands against to the satisfaction of all parties. Previbim in his native country. His English ously to entering into the details of what creditors, in consideration of his upright- has been done here, permit me to inform ness, sent him over a silver cup. His you, that this work of reforming workdaughter, his only near relative, inform- men, from dram-drinking and habitual ed a respected member of the Unitarian drunkenness, is not new to me. I have society that she never heard of the exist- been about eighteen years actively enence of this testimonial of her father's gaged in breaking up old customs, stemintegrity from himself, and never saw it ming the common prejudices and habits until after his death, when it was found of workmen, and when speaking of the concealed among things of little value! work collectively, I have six different Who, in such a case, would not have in- times proved victorious; and by the blesdulged himself with the gratification of sing of Him who aids his own cause, I a daughter's congratulations ?'
have triumphed over many an old and
stubborn profligate, as individual cases. Suppression of Intemperance.—The I have in my family journal many memfollowing letter, which is given in the orandums of time, place, and name, of fourth number of the Unitarian, pub- such particular instances. lisbed at New York, is one of the most From the beginning of the year 1810 valuable documents that has appeared to this day, I have been the open and unupon the subject. “It is in the form disguised enemy to giving workmen of a letter,' says the conductor of that liquor under any circumstances; and the work, from the superintendent of the more I am concerned with workmen, the Rhode Island coal mines, to the presin firmer I am established in my opinion. dent of the Company, P. J. Schuyler, At the first colliery I was appointed suEsq. giving a detailed account of his en- perintendent, there were about eighty tire success, in his attempts to abolish men and boys employed. The owners, the use of ardent spirits among the col- Messrs Morris and Kinnersly, were each liers. It is one of the strongest cases we of my opinion, and supported me in all have known, and Mr Clowes is entitled my plans. In about two years, we had to the thanks of every Christian, and of but few men or boys who would either every lover of his country and of man, drink, or permit drink to be taken at their for his persevering zeal. It shows what pits or houses. Adjoining our works, an immense moral power is lodged in the was the largest colliery in that section of hands of every man, who has under his the country, called Kideren Colliery, besuperintendence a body of the laboring longing to the Gilbert family, and carried and manufacturing classes, and how ac- on by John Gilbert, Esq. who, unhappicessible they generally are to reason, if ly for his workmen, believed and encourthey are app in a spirit of kind- aged the idea, that the more extravagant ness, and their own real and permanent and ignorant a workman was, he was good is seen to be the only motive in de- the better servant, and always a dependpriving them of what they have been ac- ant on his employers. In 1812 he (Mr. customed to regard, either as a necessary Gilbert) died. Morris and Kinnersly stimulant, or the only attainable luxury dissolved partnership ; and Mr. Kinnersof the poor man.'
ly purchased the kideren Colliery, and
combined the two works into one con- extra liquor brought upon the works, and cern, and appointed me to the chief su- sent to their houses, and that too by the perintendency. At this Kideren work, person whose duty it was to have prewe found upwards of three hundred men vented it. Not a week passed without and boys, in the most miserable and un- a general combat of from twenty to thirhappy condition, and all the effects of ty at a time, engaged with staves, spades, dram-drinking and habitual drunkenness. picks, axes, and any other weapon next St. Paul's language, Romans, chap. iii, at hand, to the great danger of each othfrom tenth to nineteenth verse, describes ers' lives, and to the ruin of the works. their situation much better than I can. All this was the effect of the usual allowTheir Sundays and other time not em- ance of grog. In the latter part of 1826, ployed at the colliery, were devoted to you, together with the ex-committee, cock-fighting, bull-baiting, gambling in appointed me to the superintendency of all its forms suited to their station, and these mines; and I ask you yourself to to every vice attached to a life of dissipa- bear testimony to the improved state of tion. What I saw achieved at this col- the works and workmen. Early in 1827 liery in the way of reformation, in the I commenced a general revolution, with short space of three years, has so con- a determination to do away with the firmed ine in my principles, that I have worst of all evils, and the greatest curse never once since doubted of effecting a ever inflicted on a workman, that of alchange, nor have I ever failed; and since lowing him liquor while at work, and perthat time, I have triumphed over four mitting him to have it in his house. I other works, but little better than Kide- should have accomplished our wishes ren; and if I am spared a little longer at much sooner, had it not been for several these mines, I confidently expect the unforeseen accidents in working among same satisfactory results. In 1813-14, the old works filled with water. But the first year we had the Kideren works, keeping steady to the point, I had the our accidents and killed were much less satisfaction to see my plans gradually than previous years; and ours averaged, bearing down the long cherished habit, killed 3-serious accidents 27 per month, and a very perceptible improvement take for the first twelve months. In the year place in every family. And on the first 1816, we had but one killed, and seven- Monday in October last, every man came ty-two accidents in twelve months. In up to the counting-house, and with one the year 1816, on the very ground once voice, of their own free will, desired me used for cock-fights, &c. we had erected to cease to give out any more grog.a large brick chapel, built with the do. They had always considered liquor a part nations from these same colliers. In of their wages, and had relinquished it 1815, we had three Sunday schools es- without asking an equivalent. In order, tablished, and the teachers, male and fe- therefore, to repay this sacrifice on their male, selected from the workmen and part, and to encourage such good deeds, their daughters. And in the same year, I did at that time what policy pointed out we established a benevolent club, which to be my duty; and accordingly, I there was managed principally by the work, and then informed them, I had the Com
The original articles are now be- pany's authority, to add to their wages
In all this great work, the lan- more than an equivalent for what they had guage, you shall, or, I insist, &c. was given up, by advancing their wages from never once used ; but every man had eighty-eight and a half, to ninety-two the credit of reforming at his own free cents per day. Those families, who will-there was no compulsion. And twelve months ago were clothed in rags, the same course I have pursued in every and with not a week's provision beforeother instance where I have had the hand, in December last, were, both man, charge of mines; and have brought to woman, and child, well clothed, and pass a complete change, lasting in its ef- three months' provision beforehand; befects, and this in different countries. sides cash in hand, none having less than
"At last the vicissitudes of fortune twenty, and some near one hundred dolbrought me to the Rhode Island coal lars ; not one on the sick list, but every mines. When I first came here, it is not soul in excellent health. Twelve months unknown to you and others, that the ago, our young single men had but one workman who could not, and did not drink poor ragged suit of clothes each, and his pint of whiskey per day, was not al- were generally in debt. Last December lowed to work, but sent adrift; besides they had each two, and one of them three VOL. V.-NO. II.
suits of good clothes, and from fifty to with them all, that if any of them should one hundred dollars in cash each. Dur- leave the works by my wish, (that is, if ing the winter, two have taken to them. I discharged them) I would take all in selves wives; and it gives me great pleas- their gardens, their cows, &c. at a valuaure to say, I believe they will be happy tion; but if they left the works by their and do well. Two of our young men own act and deed, then they must seek you have had with you during the win- a market elsewhere. Thus, by a little ter in the coal yard, and you can judge at a time, each man became interested of their conduct, as respects liquor and in the welfare of the mines, and gave me behaviour. When liquor was allowed at great influence over them. During fishthe works, it was no unusual occurrence ing time, I sent a boy each Friday to for the mother and children to be unmer- catch fish for every house. I also doccifully beaten, and turned out of doors at tored them and their families free of cost, night. And for several months my house and made it my chief study to anticipate door was left unlocked at nights, to af- all the little wants in an increasing tamford them a place of refuge. Since Oc- ily. By acting thus, and doing an nuntober last, not one single occurrence of dred other little unmi nionele things, this nature has taken place. Every tam- I gained their esteem, which was of the alv belonging to our works, not onlv looks utmost consequence in bringing about weil, clean, and cheerful, but several of my plans. During all this time, I never the wives of the workmen have lately lost an opportunity of expressing my own, told me that they never lived so happily and the Company's wish, that they would as they have done since the grog was cease taking grog; and took care to set excluded from the works. All is not yet the thing in a pleasing manner before done that ought to be in the way of re- them, as to the credit they would gain formation, hut the principal point has bv giving it up; and explained the great been gained, and I have no doubt of difference between having it stopped, shortly having a well organized work, and their desiring it might not be given and that all will work together for good. out. They frequently--that is some of
How this has been brought about, them-told me to stop it. This I refused and so done that the workmen have the to do, till they all united and ordered it credit of every change eilected, is what stopped ; giving as the reason, that by vou wish to know. It would be difficult my stopping it without all consented, it for me to make known in writing the would be doing them an injustice, as well way in which all this has been done, as the Company: first, I should injure them and yet the men content, if I was writing in depriving them of the credit of having to any other person except yourself, who ordered it stopped themselves; and sechave had to do with workmen for many ond, by making it appear that the Comyears. My first and main point was, to pany was arbitrary; I told them that be a living example of all I wished them whatever was done, must be by mutual to be. For this purpose, I not only ex- consent-no compulsion. In addition to rluded spirits, but wine from my house. this, I took advantage of every case of The next great thing was to keep them sickness, accident, or when alone with at home in the evenings, and so occupy any one of the leading men, to espatiate their leisure time agreeably and profita- on the awful effects of dram-drinking, bly. For this purpose I engaged a school- showing it to be a devil to the soul, a master during the winter evenings, to thief to the pocket, a wife's woe, and teach them to read, write, &c.; and sent children's sorrow, &c.; and on the othall to school, young and old, man, boy, er hand, pointing out the good to be enand girl; made the school room com- joyed by wholly relinquishing the habit, fortable with tire, and gave to all, paper, the benefit to both soul and body, the
Early in the spring I allotted happiness and comfort in their families, to each house an imlimited garden, which their better appearance in society, and occupied their leisure time during the the effects on their characters, &c.; and summer, and in this way employed them when on these topics, I did not spare in fully, leaving no time for carousing. "In colouring; and at all times endeavoured the month of May, I prevailed on those to suit the conversation to the occasion, with large families, to buy a cow and pig yet doing all in a persuasive manner, each, and to plant extra quantities of po- heaping coals of fire on their heads, not tatoes. To those who had not money I to burn them, but melt them down. My lent it, and entered into an agreement paper reminds me that I inust stop, al
though I have not toid half. Yet you their labors, they do not all together poswill be able to comprehepd, in a great sess so many respectable, wealthy, libermeasure, all my proceedings. But should al, and intelligent members as the Unitait not be what you wish, pray write again. rian Committee alone contains; and not
* And for the present, believe me to one of them has a rich or learned Native remain, your obedient servant,
among them, while the Unitarian ComJOHN CLOWES.' mittee has at least three such Natives,
besides several others on whose cooperaP.S. I must not allow this to go without telling you another thing I did te in- tion we may depend! duce the inen to give up the grog, and
2. In connexion with this Committee,
a subscription has been opened for the which operated very powerfully. That was, I preferred the man who drank the formation of a Permanent Fund, from least, to every favorable situation, and the interest of which a minister or mismade him my confidant, proclaiming it sionary may be supporteủ, and his family through the whole, that I had no conti- provided for, in constant succession, and dence in a dram-drinker. And when I
to this fund they have subscribed 25,000, engaged Mr. Young, who is a water
and are willing to pledge themselves for drinker, and by far the best and ablest 30,000, if the remaining moiety to make workman, I immediately made him sec
up 60,000 rupees can be obtained from ond in command, and gave him power what
the friends and converts of the oth
any other quarter. Contrast this with to discharge. This took just as I calcu
er missionaries have done for their teachlated, and produced what I have mentioned the first week in October last. I
ers. Of all the missionaries, there is only could state a hundred things more, but one who derives part of his support from have neither time nor room; only what the gratuitous contributions of his hear
The remainder is made up by pew I say about myself, having no liquor or
The whole sum is a small pitany wine in my house, I beg particularly to call your attention to, as to the ef- tance, scarcely sufficient for a bare subfect of my example, &c.'
sistence, and before he would accept of this mode of support, he obtained the
sanction of his Society, in order that he Unitarian Mission at Calcutta.-Mr might return upon their funds in the Adam, as we stated some time since, has
event of a deficiency. With this single relinquished his secular employments at exception, there is not a missionary in Calcutta, and is now a Unitarian Mis- Bengal, who derives any portion of his sionary. We have before us his corres
support from those to whom he ministers, pondence with the English and Ameri- and I have therefore the greater pleascan Unitarians, which preceded, and
ure in pointing your attention to the fact, must have done much to promote his ap- that the Unitarians here, in the very inpointment. No one can read it without fancy of their cause, have conceived and a feeling of strong personal interest in the half executed the noble project above writer, and a no less strong conviction of detailed, for the support of their minister. his fitness for his arduous and responsi
*3. A subscription has been opened for ble station. We regret that we cannot the erection of a Unitarian Chapel; the publish the whole series of letters, and subscriptions amount to 12,000 rupees. that we must at present content our
The ground has been purchased, and selves with a single extract. It is from when we can show the public, by coma letter to the Rev. Mr Fox of London, mencing the building, that we are in and is as follows :
earnest, I have no doubt that the sub• But the English Unitarians, you say, scriptions may be increased by several want the encouragement of facts. To thousands. this I answer, that they have the en- *4. There is a Charity School entirely couragement of facts.
supported by Rammohun Roy, at an ex•1. There exists in Calcutta a Com- pense of 300 rupees per month, in addimittee of gentlemen, European and Na- tion to all his other contributions to the tive, formed for the express purpose of Permanent Fund, Chapel Fund, &c. &c. promoting genuine Christianity. There and in which 80 Hindoo youths are are three other dissenting bodies in Cal- taught the elements of knowledge, and cutta, two Baptist and one Independent; would learn, without prejudice, whatevand notwithstanding the much greater er a Unitarian missionary could or would number of years since they commenced teach.