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35. A Discourse Delivered at the Installation of should grow perpetually in our own the Rev. Mellish Irving Motte, as Pastor of souls.' Again, there is a propensity in the South Congregational. ociety, in Boston, May 21, 1828. By William Éllery Chan- multitudes, to make a wide separation ning. Second Edition. Boston, Bowles & between religion, or christian virtue, Dearborn. 1828. 12mo. pp. 22.

and its rewards. That the chief reThis is a valuable sermon, though ward lies in the very spirit of religion, we do not consider it one of Dr Chan they do not dream. They think of ning's most successful efforts. The being Christians for the sake of someprominent idea is an important one, thing beyond the christian character, though not of a novel character-that and something more precious.' In the Christianity is designed to exert an third place, influence on the human mind. In this its glory chiefly consists.' There this discourse, is seen in the low ideas attached

Men's ignorance of the great truth stated in is and can be ‘no greater work on by multitudes to the word salvation, earth, than to purify the soul from evil, multitudes, what is the chief evil from which and to kindle in it new light, life, Christ came to save them, and they will tell

you, “From hell, from penal fires, from fuenergy, and love.' This end Christian

iure punishment." Accordingly they think, ity labors to accomplish. This might that salvation is something which another may be shown by a general survey of its achieve for them, very much as a neighbour precepts and doctrines, but it is suffi- may quench a conflagration that menaces their cient to take one feature, the know. dwellings and lives. That word hell, which is

used so seldom in the sacred pages, which, as ledge it gives of the character of God.' critics will tell you, does not occur once in the This topic is pursued at some length, writings of Paul, and Peter, and John, which and some popular misapprehensions Jesus, and which all persons acquainted with concerning the nature of religion point- Jewish geography, know to be a metaphor, a ed out. After showing the great pur- figure of specch, and not a literal expression, pose of the christian doctrine respecting this word, by a perverse and exaggerated use,

has done unspeakable injury to Christianity. God, or in what its importance and glory consists,' and observing that every other doctrine of our religion has

On this passage the Spirit of the the same end, 'a fruitful subject,” Dr Pilgrims, with its characteristic fairChanning remarks, on which he cannotness, remarks,— Now the truth is, enter,' he proceeds;

this unfortunate English word, hell,

occurs more than fifty times in our • It has been my object in this discourse to lay open a great truth, a central, all comprehend English translation of the bible; it is ing truth of Christianity. 'Whoever intelli- used both by Peter and John; and is gently and cordially embraces it, obtains a inserted more than a dozen times in the standard by which to try all other doctrines; record which is left us of the discoursand to measure the importance of all other truths. Is it so embraced ? I fear not. I ap

es of Jesus.' * Admit this, admit that prebend that it is dimly discerned by many who the English word' occurs in our acknowledge it, whilst on many more it has

English translation so many times.'hardly dawned. I see other views prevailing, and prevailing in a greater or less degree among

What is all this to the purpose ? It does all bodies of Christians, and they seem to me

not in the least affect the correctness of among the worst errors of our times. Some of Dr C.'s remark, in the sense in which, these I would now briefly notice.'

as the writer in the Spirit of the PilThe first is that of those, who, in- grims' must have known, he meant to stead of placing the glory of Christian- be understood. He may have expressity in the pure and powerful action, ed himself a little incautiously; we which it gives to the human mind, think he has; he might have said, the seem to think, that it is rather designed corresponding word in the original, or to substitute the activity of another for the word properly translated hell, ocour own.'—Now the great purpose of

curs but seldom. Such was obviously Christianity is, not to procure or offer his meaning; and it is something worse to the mind a friend on whom it may than cavilling to put any other construcpassively lean, but to make the mind

tion on his language. The word in itself wise, strong, and efficient. Its the original, gerrye, answering to our end is, not that wisdom and strength, English word hell, does not occur as subsisting in another, should do everything for us, but that these attributes

* Number for July, p. 39). VOL. V.-NO. IV.

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p. 15.

one.

once in the writings of Poul and Peter, curs in eleven places in the New Tesand John,' and is met wiih 'only in tament, and is rendered hell in all, four or five discourses of Jesus,' though except one, where it is translated in one or iwo of tho e discourses it is grave, it is quite common in classical repeated. In all, it occurs in the New authors, and frequently used by the Testament,twelve times-seven in Mat- Seventy, in the translation of the Old thew, three in Mark, once in Luke, Testament. In my judgment, it ought and once in James . *

of the seven never in the scripture to be rendered instances of its use by Matthew three hell, at least in the sense wherein that occur in the same discourse and same word is now universally understood chapter, the fifth; again it occurs twice by Christians. In the Old Testament the in the discourse recorded in the twenty- corresponding word is bor sheol, which third chapter of the three instances signifies the state of the dead in generin which it is used by Mark, all occur al, without regard to the goodness or in the ninth chapter, and in one dis- badness of the persons, their happiness course of our Saviour, the same that is or misery. In translating that word, recorded by Matthew in the fifth chap- the Seventy have almost invariably ter. The sum is this ; according to used edas.' — But it is very plain, that Matthew our Saviour appears to have neither in the Septuagint version of the used the term on four occasions, or in Old Testament nor in the New, does four discourses. Mark mentions only the word adus convey the meaning one occasion, on which he used it, the which the present English word hell, in same with one of those recorded by the christian usage, always conveys to Matthew, and Luke mentions only our minds.'—*Who would render the

It appears then that Jesus used words of the venerable patriarch Jacob, it only on five occasions, at most, and when he was deceived by his sons into in all the Epistles it occurs but once, the opinion that his favorite child Joand then in this connexion ;-James seph had been devoured by a wild observes of the tongue, that it selteth beast, I will go down to hell to my son on fire the course of nature ; and is set mourning? or the words, which he on fire of hell.iii. 6.

used, when they expostulated with him There is another word, afns, which about sending his youngest son Benjaking James's translators have sometimes min into Egypt along with them; Ye rendered hell, but very improperly, as will bring down my gray hairs with no one, who has the slightest tincture sorrow to hell ? Yet in both of these of biblical learning, will venture to places, the word in the original is shedeny. On the subject of these two ol, and in the version of the Seventy, words we cannot offer anything more hades,'*-very inconsistently rendered to the purpose than the following ob- hell in our common version, in several servations of Dr Campbell, an eminent passages both of the Old and New Tes. Trinitarian critic.

tament. It means the grave, or the . The word geryva does not occur place of the departed, without referin the Septuagint. It is not a Greek ence to their condition as happy or mis. word, and consequently not to be found erable. In the passages above quoted in the Grecian classics. It is originally by Dr Campbell, it might have been a compound of the two Hebrew words translated hell with just as much proDinna ge hinnom, the valley of Hin. priety, as in several others in which it nom, a place near Jerusalem, of which is so translated.t we hear first in the book of Joshua. It There is another word, which occurs was there that the cruel sacrifices of once, 2 Peter, ii. 4. and only once, in children were made by fire to Moloch, the New Testament, tagtaguots, redthe Ammonitish idol. The place was dered very improperly, cast down to also called Tophet, and that, as is sup- hell.' It should have been translated, posed, from the noise of drums, (Toph either thrust down to Tartarus,' or signifying a drum), a noise raised on

* Dissert. vi. Part ii. purpose to drown the cries of the help

† The eleven places in which it occurs in the less infants.'

New Testament are, Matt. xi. 23. xvi. 18. • As to the word adns; which oc- Luke, x. 15. xvi. 23. Acts, ii. 27, 31. I Cor.

IV. 55, translated grave, and Rev. i, 18. vi. 8. * Matt. v. 22, 29, 30. x. 28. xviii. 9. xxiii. xx. 13, 14, It occurs in the Septuagint tran15, 3.1. Mark, ix. 43, 45, 47. Luke, xii. 5. slation of the Old Testament between sixty James, i.6.

and seventy times.

simply cast down,' which, according through its power to suffer for truth, lovely to Grotius, is all it here means. That through its meck and gentle virtues. No other the place, meant to be designated by it, endure and increuse in splendor, when earthly

monument does Christ desire ; for this will was not greyye, hell, is evident from the thrones shall have fallen, and even when the words which immediately follow, which present order of the outward universe shall have represent the fallen angels as reserved accomplished its work, and shall have passed

away.' pp. 21-2 in it, as in a sort of prison house, till the final judgment. Now hell, Jeevve, or the state of suffering indicated by that figurative term, comes after judginent. 36. Annotations on the New Testament. By So Dr Campbell. Peter then does not J. P. Dabney. Boston. 1828. say, that the apostate angels are cast

It has long been a matter of surinto hell, or the place of tinal punish- priseto us, that a work precisely of this ment, if we may speak of place in this description has not been prepared and connexion, but only that they are confined, till they shall be brought to published by some gentleman of leisure, judgment, in a place of darkness, called plaint has grown quite common of late,

and competent learning. The comTartarus. By this, says Grotius, is that we want a family bible; but as meant the lower regions of the atınosphere near the earth, called obscure or

this is an undertaking, which requires

much time and labor, and besides shadowy, as may be gathered from Philo and Plutarch, in comparison with must be very expensive, it was to be heaven, where is light superior to that expected that it would be preceded by

a publication like the present. The of the sun and moon, pure, and unmingled with darkness. According to this great object of a family bible, too, ceropinion, the apostate spirits are suppos

tainly one of the greatest, the explanaed to bave been thrust down from the answered in a cheap and unpretending

tion of scripture, may be effectually upper heavens, the abode of purest volume, like the one before us; which light, into the nether atmosphere, far for this very reason may be put into below the region of the stars, where they are contined, as in a prison, and the hands of readers generally, while beyond the limits of which they are

the circulation of a larger and more not permitted to wander. Hence the expensive work must, as a natural conexpression, • Prince of the power of the sequence, be quite limited. We also air.'

have serious doubts about the propriety Eph. ii. 2.

Whatever weight of spreading before the reader, on the be allowed to the criticism of Grotius, which is certainly ingenious, it is evi- cal observations; as it may insensibly

same page, text, comment, and practident that the word in question is very lead him, and we believe it often does inaccurately translated, cast down to in fact lead the unthinking, to attach to hell.'

Dr Channing notices another in- them all the same, or nearly the same stance of the error he is endeavouring authority. It would be amusing, if it to expose the common apprehensions

were not for some of its moral influformed of heaven, and of the methods truth, to see with what solemn assent

ences, and its effect on the progress of by which it may be obtained. Not a few, I suspect, conceive of heaven as

many a pious and well meaning Chrisa foreign good. It is a distant

tian reads the hasty and ill digested country, to which we are to be con

commentary of Scoit, and takes it all veyed by an outward agency.

How

for gospel, though it is perfectly unslowly do men learn, that heaven is derstood, that no well informed critic the perfection of the mind, and that of any denomination would give to that Christ gives it now just as far as he writer's opinions on such subjects the raises the mind to celestial truth and weight of a feather. We may mention virtue.”. The following are part of his another objection to family bibles; concluding remarks,

their assuming, as they seem to do, • Look not abroad for the blessings of Christ.

that, looking merely to its moral uses, His reign and chief blessiogs are within you.

to read the bible through in The human soul is his kingdom. There he

course, as if some parts, in a practical gains his victories, there rears his temples, view, were not much more valuable there lavishes his treasures. His noblest monument is a mind, redeemed from iniquity,

than others, and should not be read ofbrought back and devoted to God, forming it tener; or as if any good could come self after the perfection of the Saviour, great from ever reading before children and

we are

young persons such a book as Solomon's difficult and disputed passages, he does Song; or from trying to spell out whole not dwell on them, nor attach an undue chapters of hard names in Numbers. importance to them, nor tall to abusing

We will not say, all things considered, those who understand them differently. that a family bible is not desirable; Finally, it will add to the value and aubut we shall probably have to wait thority of these Annotations, that the several years before one is prepared, name of the author is given, we believe and in the mean time must avail our in every case, whom the compiler has selves of some such substitute as is quoted or followed ; and perhaps we offered in the compilation before us. cannot better recommend the work than One number, as a specimen of the by saying, that of these names, none work, has been some time before the occur so frequently as those of Grotius, public, and another much larger will Le Clerc, Rosenmuller, Wakefield, and soon follow, continuing the annotations Priestley. through the rest of Matthew and Mark; Some may object that these Annotamost of which we have had an oppor- tions are not always so full and perspitunity to examine. Considering this cuous that they will be readily comprework as intended for common readers, hended by common readers, and perand especially for teachers in Sunday haps they are are not; and this may be Schools, several things may be noticed, owing in a few instances to an obscure which entitle it, as we conceive, to and involved style, which might have commendation, and ought to bring it been avoided without any sacrifice of into general use.

brevity. It should be considered, howProbably no work of the kind now ever, that to make every part of seripextant, comes so near as this will, as a ture perfectly plain and simple to the whole, to exhibiting the sense of scrip- unlearned, it would have been necesture held by the majority of Unitarians sary for the compiler to insert, not short in this country. The notes are brief, notes merely, but whole dissertations, and as few, as the objects of the work and change essentially the character of will possibly allow; in consequence of the work. Many ministers, who are which, the whole will be comprised in in the habit of lecturing on the scripa moderately sized duodecimo volume. tures, will probably recommend this The compiler shows none of the per- work to their people, as a sort of textverse ingenuity of those commentators book, and will be able to supply the who seem, next to the honor of remov- deficiency here complained of, as occaing an old difficulty, to reckon that of sion offers; and we can conceive of no discovering a new one. He also avoids other way in which it can be supplied, giving a multitude of interpretations to in all cases, without losing and sacrificthe same passage, of all which, except ing more than would be gained. It is ing one or two, perhaps, the best that easy to cavil at particular omissions or can be said is, that they are ingenious failures; after all, however, we suspect and plausible. In this way it would it will be difficult to refer to any work, have been easy for him to make a pa- which will give, even to common readrade of what is called learning; but its ers, and in the same compass, so much effect on common readers would have useful and agreeable information. been to distract their minds, and intro- We hope Mr Dabney will go on and duce uncertainty ; so that, where the complete the volume without any unbook would have met and resolved one necessary delays; and we are glad to doubt, it would probably have suggested learn that this is his object, and that he twenty. Besides, we believe that those proposes to have the whole off his commentators and compilers who are hands by the first of March. We hope, most officious in their endeavours to ex- also, that he will give a preface to the plain what is already sufficiently iniel- Annotations, containing brief historical ligible, commonly compensate them- notices of the several books of the New selves for this useless trouble, by skip- Testament, and something which may ping the really difficult passages. It serve as a key, particularly to the Episshould also be mentioned in praise of tles. It would not swell the volume this work, that it is not controversial much, it would greatl enhance its either in manner or spirit; for though value, and the labor it would require the compiler gives what he conceives would be inconsiderable. to be the best and truest comments on

37. A Discourse on the reciprocal Duties of a a vision to this purpose, on the day of his con

Minister and his People ; delivered at the secration to the ministry. Awful thoughts fillOpening of the Christian Chapel in Salem, ed his soul. A heavenly light shone in his cell. Mass. May 1, 18:28. By Charles Morgridgo, He turned his eye to the heavens, and, lo! they Minister of the First Christian Society in New were illuminated; he looked to the earth, and, Bedford. Boston : Wait, Greene, & Co. lo! it was on fire. The judgment throne was 18:20. 12mo. pp. 24,

set, and the inhabitants of heaven and earth

assembled. Michael stood forth before the judge, This is a well written, and somewhat

and held in his hand that mighty balance in original performance. In old times, which souls and their actions are weighed. the pastoral care used to be almost the When ordinary mortals were put into the scales,

the standard by which they were tried was less only subject chosen by preachers at

and lighter ; nor did they soem to be too scrupudedications and ordinations; of course lously weighed, if the beam stood only near a it became a little the worse for so con- poise. Nay, the breath of mercy made it somestant wear. But lately, such an abun

iimes incline in their favor, when all the pleas

tha' made for them could not decidedly cast it. dant variety of topics has been discuss

But when ministers came to be weighed, the ed on those occasions, that the pastoral standard was ten times auginented, for those care comes before us with an aspect of whom least was required ; and, in general, approaching to novelty. In any times, of the angel Ithiel, prince of the seventh or however, this sermon must have been lowest order of the hierarchy of heaven. For listened to with interest, and been God had ordained, that in the progressive scale deemed creditable to the understand

there should be no blank, and that the highest

order of men should reach the lowest order of ing, piety, taste, and heart of the writer.

superior beings. Coivin reflected on the dread We regard it with additional pleasure, office to which he was set a part; he perceived as the work of a gentleman who stands the awful sanctity and care which it required. high among the ministers of that de- His heart swelled ; the tears burst from his

eyes ; he wiped them with his hand and the nomination of Christians called Christ

vision vanished. The impression, however, reian, which we have been for some mained, and Coivin lived on earth, innocent, time in the habit of considering as a and active, as an angel of heaven.'-p. 21. remarkable and effectual instrument in To this vision is immediately subjoindiffusing widely abroad through our ed by the preacher, with great simpopulation, correct, generous, and scrip- plicity, · Thus you see, brethren, that tural views of christian theology; a the salvation of your minister is, by denomination in which are united sim- the nature of his office, rendered far plicity with good sense, and a deep and more difficult than if he sustained a zealous piety with rational opinions. private relation.'

There are some instances in this sermon of a quaintness, which reminds us of the old English writers. Advising a minister of the gospel to let mystery

38. An Address, delivered at Springfield, be

fore the Hampden Colonization Society. July alone, and preach plainly and directly 4th, 1828. By William B. 0. Peabodyfrom the bible, Mr Morgridge says, Springfield, S. Bowles. 1828. 8vo. pp. 16. • He will thereby avoid the criminality WE fear that the national character of darkening counsel by words without is more likely to be debased than eleknowledge. He will also avail him- vated, by the manner in which the self of the singular advantage of preach anniversary of our Independence is ing to all who believe the scriptures, commonly celebrated. We do not now without giving needless offence to any; refer to the dissipation and excess which while every devout hearer, being free often attend it, but to the addresses from disquieting apprehensions of hav- and orations, written for the most part ing his ear cut off by the sword of sec. by young men without maturity of tarianism, cannot fail to receive instruc- mind, or discretion, and wholly for poption, and comfort, and blessing under ular effect. It is something that the such a ministry.'

public taste should be depraved by these A curious legend is introduced to- puerile and inflated compositions ; but wards the end of the discourse, to illus- this is an evil which dwindles into intrate the position, that in doing his peo- significance compared with their moral ple service the minister increases the

and political influences. The day had difficulty of his own salvation. From better not be remembered at all than be what author or book it is taken, we remembered merely to exasperate and confess that we do not know; but it is inflame party spirit; or to keep alive as follows ;

antipathies against the mother country, · Coivin, now with God and his angels, had which every good man must wish to

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