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numbers, have been no less instrumental in the dissemination of religious knowledge, and in the production of religious conduct. I might go to large and populous towns and villages in the kingdom, and fully prove my assertion in the reformed manners of the poor, many of whom, before these pious visitations, had been remarkable for the profaneness of their lives.

Let us then not talk but with great deference and humility, with great tenderness and charity, with great thankfulness to the Author of every good gift, when we speak of the different systemas that actuate the Christian world. Why should we consider our neighbour as an alien, and load him with reproaches, because he happens to differ from us in opinion about an article of faith? As long as there are men, so long there will be different measures of talents and understanding; and so long will they view things in a different light, and come to different conclusions concerning them. The eye of one man can see further than that of another. So can the human mind on the subject of speculative truths. This consideration should teach us humility and forbearance

forbearance in judging of the religion of others. For who is he who can say that he sees the furthest, or that his own system is the best? If such men as Milton, Whiston, Boyle, Locke, and Newton, all agreeing in the profession of Christianity, did not all think precisely alike concerning it, who art thou, with thy inferior capacity, who settest up the standard of thine own judgment as infallible? If thou sendest thy neighbour to perdition in the other world, because he does not agree in his creed with thee, know that he judges according to the best of his abilities, and that no more will, be required of him. Know also that thou thyself judgest like a worm of the earth ; that thou dishonourest the Almighty by thy reptile notions of him; and that, in making him accord with thee in condemning one of his creatures for what thou conceivest to be the misunderstanding of a speculative proposition, thou treatest him like a man, as thou thyself art, with corporeal organs, with irritable passions, and with a limited intelligence. But if, besides this, thou condemnest thy neighbour in this world also, and feelest the spirit of persecution

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secution towards him, know that, whatever thy pretensions may be to religion, thou art not a Christian. Thou art not possessed of that charity or love, without which thou art but as a sounding brass and a tinkling cymbal.

Having therefore no religious prejudices* myself except in favour of Christianity, and holding no communion with the Quakers as a religious society, it cannot be likely that I should attempt to proselyte to Quakerism. I wish principally, as I stated in my introduction to this work, to make the Quakers better known to their countrymen than they are at present. In this I think I have already succeeded; for I believe I have communicated many facts concerning them, which have never been related by others. But no people can be thoroughly known, or at least the character of a people cannot be thoroughly understood, except we are

*Though I conceive a charitable allowance ought to be made for the diversity of religious opinions among Christians, I by no means intend to say, that it is not our duty to value the system of opinion which we think most consonant to the gospel, and to be wisely zealous in its support

acquainted

acquainted with their religion. Much less can that of the Quakers, who differ so ma terially, both in their appearance and practice, from the rest of their fellow-citizens. Having thought it right to make these prefatory observations, I proceed to the prosecution of my work.

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CHAP

CHAPTER I.

The Almighty created the universe by means of his Spirit-and also man-He gave man, besides his intellect, an emanation from his own Spirit, thus making him in his own image-but this image he lost-a portion, however, of the same Spirit was continued to his posterity-These possessed' it in different degrees-Abraham, Moses, and the prophets had more of it than some others— Jesus possessed it immeasurably, and without Limit-Evangelists and apostles possessed it, but in a limited manner and in different degrees.

HE Quakers believe, that, when the Almighty created the Universe, he effected it by means of the life, or vital or vivifying energy, that was in his own Spirit. "And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep, and the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters."

This life of the Spirit has been differently named, but is concisely styled by St. John the evangelist the Word; for he the beginning was the Word, and the Word

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