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them the churches in America, where they diligently labour in the vineyard, probably for a year a two, at a distance from their families and friends. And here it may observed that, while Quaker-ministers from England are thus visiting America on a religious errand, ministers from America, impelled by the same influence, are engaging in apostolical missions to England. These foreign visits, on both sides, are not undertaken by such ministers only as are men; women engage in them also. They cross the Atlantic, and labour in the vineyard in the same manner. It may be mentioned here, that though it be a principle in the Quaker-society, that no minister of the Gospel ought to be paid for his religious labours, yet the expense of the voyages, on such occasions, is allowed to be defrayed out of the fund which is denominated by the Quakers their "National Stock."



EldersTheir appointment-one part of their office to watch over the doctrines and conduct of ministers-account of their origin-another part of their office to meet the ministers of the church, and to confer and exhort for religious good-none of them to meddle at these conferences with the government of the church.

I MENTIONED in the preceding chapter, as the reader must have observed, that certain persons, called Elders, watched over those who came forward in the ministry, with a view of ascertaining if they had received a proper qualification or call; I shall now state who the elders are, as well as more particularly the nature of their office.

To every particular meeting four elders, two men and two women, but sometimes more and sometimes less, according as persons can be found qualified, are appointed. These are nominated by a committee appointed by the monthly meeting, in conjunction with a committee appointed by the


quarterly meeting. And as the office annexed to the name of elder is considered peculiarly important by the Quakers, particular care is taken that persons of clear discernment, and such as excel in the spiritual ear, and such as are blameless in their lives, are appointed to it. It is recommended, that neither wealth nor age be allowed to operate as inducements in the choice of them. Indeed, so much care is required to be taken with respect to the filling up of this office, that, if persons perfectly suitable are not to be found, the meetings are to be left without them.

It is one part of the duty of the elders, when appointed, to watch over the doctrine of young ministers, and also to watch over the doctrine and conduct of ministers generally, and tenderly to advise with such as appear to them to be deficient in any of the qualifications which belong to their high calling.

When we consider that every religious society attaches a more than common respectability to the person who performs the sacerdotal office, there will be no difficulty in supposing, whenever a minister may be


thought to err, that many of those who are aware of his error will want the courage to point it out to him, and that others will excuse themselves from doing it, by saying that interference on this occasion does not belong more immediately to them than to others. This institution therefore of elders fixes the office on individuals. It makes it their duty to watch and advise. It makes them responsible for the unsound doctrine, or the bad conduct, of their ministers. And this responsibility is considered as likely to give persons that courage, in watching over the ministry, which they might otherwise want. Hence, if a minister in the Quakerchurch were to preach unsoundly, or to act inconsistently with his calling, he would be generally sure of being privately spoken to by one or another elder.

This office of elders, as far as it is concerned in advising ministers of the Gospel, had its foundation laid by George Fox. Many persons who engaged in the ministry in his time are described by him as “having run into imaginations, or as having gone beyond their measure;" and in these cases, whenever they should happen, he recommended

commended that one or two friends, if they saw fit, should advise with them in love and wisdom. In process of time, however, this evil seems to have increased; for as the Society spread, numbers pressed forward to become Gospel-ministers. Many supposed that they had a call from the Spirit, and rose up and preached, and, in the heat of their imaginations, delivered themselves unprofitably. Two or three persons also, in the phrensy of their enthusiasm, frequently rose up, and spoke at the same time. Now this was easily to be done in a religious society where all were allowed to speak, and where the qualifications of ministers were to be judged of in part by the truths delivered, or rather, where ordination was no mark of the ministry, or where an human appointment of it was unknown. For these reasons that mode of superintendence which had only been suggested by George Fox, and left to the discretion of individuals, was perfected into an establishment, out of imperious necessity, in after times. Men were appointed to determine between the effects of divine inspiration and human imagination; to judge between the cool and sound,




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