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“But when we consider justification as a state of divine favour and acceptance, we ascribe it, not simply either to faith or works, but to the sanctifying operation of the Spirit of Christ, from which living faith and acceptable works alone proceed; and by which we may come to know that the Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirits, that we are the children of God.'

“In attributing our justification, through the Grace of God in Christ Jesus, to the operation of the Holy Spirit which sanctifies the heart, and produces the work of regeneration, we are supported by the testimony of the apostle Paul, who says,

• Not by works of righteousness which we have done, but of his mercy, he saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost.' Again : “But ye are washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye are justified, in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God.'

By this view of the doctrine of justification, we conceive the apparently different sentiments of the apostles Paul and James are reconciled. Neither of them says that

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faith alone, or works alone, are the cause of our being justified ; but as one of them asserts the necessity of faith, and the other of works, for effecting this great object, a clear and convincing proof is afforded that both contribute to our justification ; and that faith without works, and works without faith, are equally dead."

VOL. II.

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CHAP CHAPTER XIV.

Quakers reject Baptism and the Lord's Supper

much censured for it - Indulgence solicited for them on account of the difficulties connected with these subjects--Christian religion spiritual-Jewish types to be abolished-Different meanings of the word baptize"-Disputes concerning the mode of baptism-concerning also the nature and constitution of the supper-concerning also the time and manner of ils celebration-This indulgence also proper, liecause the Quakers give ii to others who differ from them, as a body, on the

subject of religion. The Quakers, among other particularities, reject the application of Water-baptism, and the administration of the Sacrament of the Supper, as Christian rites.

These ordinances have been considered by many, as so essentially interwoven with Christianity, that the Quakers, by rejecting the use of them, have been denied to be Christians.

But, whatever may be the difference of opinion between the world and the Quakers upon these subjects, great indulgence is due to the latter on this occasion. People have received the ordinances in question from their ancestors. They have been brought up to the use of them. They have seen them sanctioned by the world. Finding their authority disputed by a body of men, who are insignificant as to numbers when compared with others, they have let loose their censure upon them, and this without any inquiry concerning the grounds of their dissent. They know perhaps nothing of the obstinate contentions, nothing of the difficulties that have occurred, and nothing of those which may still be started on these subjects. I shall state therefore a few considerations by way of preface; during which the reader will see, that objections both fair and forcible may be raised by the best disposed Christians on the other side of the question ; that the path is not so plain and easy as he may have imagined it to be; and that, if the Quakers have taken a road different from himself on this occasion, they are entitled to a fair hearing of all they have to say in their defence, and to expect the same candour and indulgence which he

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himself would have claimed, if, with the best intentions, he had not been able to come to the same conclusion, on any given point of importance, as had been adopted by others.

Let me then ask, in the first place, What is the great characteristic of the religion we profess?

If we look to divines for an answer to this question, we may easily obtain it. We shall find some of them, in their sermons, speaking of circumcision, baptismal washings and purifications, new moons, feasts of the

passover and unleavened bread, sacrifices and other rites: we shall find them dwelling on these, as constituent parts of the religion of the Jews. We shall find them immediately passing from thence to the religion of Jesus Christ. Here all is considered by them to be spiritual. Devotion of the heart is insisted upon as that alone which is acceptable to God. If God is to be worshipped, it is laid down as a position, that he is to be worshipped in spirit and in truth. We shall find them also, in other of their sermons, but particularly in those preached after the Reformation, stating the advantages obtained

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