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is laid upon the first; and a third, differently marked, and denominated "Priest," is laid upon the second. Upon this again a large dish is placed; and in this dish is a shank-bone of a shoulder of lamb, with a small matter of meat on it, which is burnt quite brown on the fire. This is instead of
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the lamb roasted with fire. egg, roasted hard in hot ashes that it may not be broken, to express the totality of the lamb. There is also placed on the table a small quantity of raw chervil, instead of the bitter herbs ordered; also a cup with salt water, in remembrance of the sea crossed over after that repast; also a stick of horseradish with its green top to it, to represent the bitter labour that made the eyes of their ancestors water in slavery; and a couple of round balls, made of bitter almonds pounded with apples, to represent their labour in lime and bricks. The seat or couch of the master is prepared at the head of the table, and raised with pillows, to represent the masterly authority of which the Jews were deprived in bondage. The meanest of the servants are seated at the table, for two nights, with their masters, mistresses, and
superiors, to denote that they were all equally slaves in Egypt, and that all ought to give the same ceremonial thanks for their rédemption. Cups also are prepared for the wine, of which each person must drink four in the course of the ceremony. One cup
extraordinary is set on the table for Elias, which is drunk by the youngest in his stead.
All things having been thus prepared, the guests wash their hands, and seat themselves at table. The master of the family, soon after this, takes his cup of wine in his right hand; and, the rest at the table doing the same, he says, together with all the others: "Blessed art thou, O Lord, our God, king of the universe, who hast created the fruit of the vine!" This is followed by a thanksgiving for the institution of the Passover. Then the cup of wine is drunk by all. Afterwards the master of the family says, "Blessed art thou, O Lord, our God, king of the universe, who hast sanctified us with thy commandments, and commanded us to cleanse our hands!"
Then the master of the family desires the guests to partake of the chervil dipped in salt
salt water, which he gives them with an appropriate blessing. He makes them touch also the dish containing the egg and shankbone of the lamb, and to repeat with him a formula of words suited to the subject. He then takes the second cup of wine, and uses words, in conjunction with the rest, expressive of the great difference between this and any other night. After this, copious remarks follow on the institution of the Passover. Then follow queries and answers of the Rabbies on this subject. Then historical accounts of the Jews. Then the fifteen acts of the goodness of God to the Jewish nation which they make out thus: He led the Jews out of Egypt. He punished the Egyptians. He executed judgment on their Gods. He slew their first-born. He
gave the Jews wealth. He divided the sea for them. He made them pass through it as on dry land. He drowned the Egyptians in the same. He gave food to the Jews for forty years in the wilderness. He fed them with manna. He gave them the sabbath. He brought them to Mount Sinai. He gave
them the Law. land of Promise.
He brought them to the
When these acts of the goodness of God, with additional remarks on the Passover out of Rabbi Gamaliel, have been recited, all the guests touch the dish, which contains the three cakes of bread before mentioned, and say, "This sort of unleavened bread, which we eat, is because there was not sufficient time for the dough of our ancestors to rise, until the blessed Lord, the king of kings, did reveal himself to redeem them; as it is written, and they baked unleavened cakes of the dough, which they brought forth out of Egypt; for it was not leavened, because they were thrust out of Egypt, and could not tarry, neither had they prepared for themselves any victuals.'" After this they touch the horse-radish, and join in a narration on the subject of their bondage. Then they take their third cup of wine, and pronounce a formula of adoration and praise, accompanied with blessings and thanksgivings, in allusion to the historical part of the Passover. After this the master of the fa
mily washes his hands, and says, "Blessed art thou, O Lord, our God, king of the universe, who hast sanctified us with thy commandments, and commanded us to
cleanse our hands!" He then breaks the uppermost cake of bread in the dish, and "Blessed art thou, O Lord, our God, says, king of the universe, who hast brought forth bread from the earth!" Then he takes half of another cake of bread, and breaks it, and says, "Blessed art thou, O Lord, our God, king of the universe, who hast sanctified us with thy commandments, and commanded us to eat the unleavened bread!" Then he gives every one at the table of each of the two cakes of bread that are broken, and every one repeats audibly the two last bless- ́ ings. He then takes the green top from the horse-radish, and puts on the balls before mentioned, and pronounces a blessing. He then these into the hands of the guests, and they pronounce the same. After this he cuts the bottom cake, and puts a piece of it upon a piece of horse-radish, and pronounces a formula of words in allusion to an historical fact.
These ceremonies having been thus completed, the guests sup.
After supper a long grace is said. Then the fourth cup is filled. A long prayer follows on the subject of creation. This is