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half mourning, is to be worn. Thus the habit is changed, and for no other reason than that of conformity with the laws of fashion. The length of the time, also, or season of mourning is made to depend upon the scale of men's affinity to the deceased; though nothing can be more obvious, than that men's affection for the living, and their sorrow for them when dead, cannot be measured by this standard. Hence the very time that a man shall mourn, and the very time that he shall only half mourn, and the very

time that he shall cease to mourn, are fixed for him by the world, whatever may be the duration of his own sorrow,

In court mourning, also, we have an instance of men being instructed to mourn, where their feelings are neither interested nor concerned. In this case the disguised pomp, spoken of by the Quakers, will be more apparent.

Two princes have perhaps been fighting with each other for a considerable portion of their reign. The blood of their subjects has been spilt, and their treasures have been exhausted. They have probably had, during all this time, no kind disposition one towards another, each con,

sidering

4

sidering the other as the aggressor, or as the author of the war. When both have been wearied out with expense, they have made peace. But they have still mutual jealousies and fears. At length one of them dies. The other, on receiving an express relative to the event, orders mourning for the deceased for a given time. As other potentates receive the intelligence, they follow the example. Their several levees, or drawing-rooms, or places of public audience, are filled with mourners. Every individual of each sex, who is accustomed to attend them, is now habited in black. Thus a round of mourning is kept up by the courtiers of Europe, not by means of any sympathetic beating of the heart, but at the sound as it were of the postman's horn.

But let us trace this species of mourning further, and let us now look more particularly at the example of our own country, for the elucidation of the position in question. The same gazette, which

birth to this black influenza aţ court, spreads it still further. The private gentlemen of the land undertake to mourn also. You see them accordingly in the streets, and in private parties, and at public places, in their mourning habits. Nor is this all. Military officers, who have fought against the armies of the deceased, wear crapes of sable over their arms, in token of the same sorrow.

gave

But the fever does not stop even here. It still spreads, and, in tracing its progress, we find it to have attacked our merchants. Yes. The disorder has actually got upon 'Change. But what have I said? Mourning habits upon 'Change! where the news of an army cut to pieces produces the most cheerful countenances in many, if it raise the stocks but a half per cent.! Mourning habits upon Change! where contracts are made for human flesh and blood; where plans, that shall consign cargoes of human beings to misery and untimely death, and their posterity to bondage, are deliberately formed and agreed upon! O Sorrow, Sorrow, what hast thou to do upon 'Change, except in the case of commercial losses or disappointed speculation! But to add to this disguised pomp, as the Quakers call it, not one of ten thousand of the mourners ever saw the deceased prince; and perhaps ninety-nine in the hundred, of all who heard of him,.reprobated his character when alive.

CHAP

CHAPTER III.

Occupations of the Quakers--- Agriculture declining

among them--probable reasons of this decline Country congenial to the quietude of mind required by their religion-Sentiments of Corpercongenial also to the improvement of their moral feelings--Sentiments of William Penn-particularly suited to them, as lovers of the animalcreation.

The Quakers generally bring up their children to some employment. They believe that these, by having an occupation, may avoid evils into which they might otherwise fall, if they had upon their hands an undue proportion of vacant time. " Friends of all degrees," says the Book of Extracts, “ are advised to take due care to breed up their children in some useful and necessary einployment, that they may not spend their precious time in idleness, which is of evil example, and tends much to their hurt.”

The Quakers have been described to be a domestic people, and as peculiarly cherishing domestic happiness. Upon this princi

ple

ple it is, combined with the ties of their discipline and peculiar customs, that we scarcely find

any of this Society quitting their country, except for America, to reside as solitary merchants or factors in foreign parts. If it be a charge against the Quakers, that they are eager in the pursuit of wealth, let it at least be mentioned in their favour, that, in their accumulation of it, they have been careful not to suffer their knowledge to take advantage of the ignorance of others, and that they have kept their hands clear of the oppression and of the blood of their fellowcreatures.

In looking among the occupations of the Quakers, we shall find some who are brought up as manufacturers and mechanics. But the number of these is small. Others, but these are very few, follow

There may be here and there a mate or captain in the coasting employ. In America, where they have great local and other advantages, there may be more in the sea-faring line. But, in general, the Quakers are domestic characters, and prefer home. There are but few, also, who follow the

professions.

the sea.

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