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bits. Nor is this all. Military officers, who have fought against the armies of the deceased, wear crapes of sable over their arms, in token of the same sorrow.
But the fever does not stop even here. It still spreads, and, in tracing its progress, we find it to have attacked our merchants. Yes. The disorder has actually got upon 'Change. But what have I said? Mourning habits upon 'Change! where the news of an army cut to pieces produces the most cheerful countenances in many, if it raise the stocks but a half per cent.! Mourning habits upon 'Change! where contracts are made for human flesh and blood; where plans, that shall consign cargoes of human beings to misery and untimely death, and their posterity to bondage, are deliberately formed and agreed upon! O Sorrow, Sorrow, what hast thou to do upon 'Change, except in the case of commercial losses or disappointed speculation! But to add to this disguised pomp, as the Quakers call it, not one of ten thousand of the mourners ever saw the deceased prince; and perhaps ninety-nine in the hundred, of all who heard of him, reprobated his character when alive.
Occupations of the Quakers-Agriculture declining among them-probable reasons of this declineCountry congenial to the quietude of mind required by their religion-Sentiments of Cowpercongenial also to the improvement of their moral feelings--Sentiments of William Penn-particularly suited to them, as lovers of the animalcreation.
THE Quakers generally bring up their children to some employment. They believe that these, by having an occupation, may avoid evils into which they might otherwise fall, if they had upon their hands an undue proportion of vacant time. "Friends of all degrees," says the Book of Extracts, " are advised to take due care to breed up their children in some useful and necessary employment, that they may not spend their precious time in idleness, which is of evil example, and tends much to their hurt."
The Quakers have been described to be a domestic people, and as peculiarly cherishing domestic happiness. Upon this princi
ple it is, combined with the ties of their discipline and peculiar customs, that we scarcely find any of this Society quitting their country, except for America, to reside as solitary merchants or factors in foreign parts. If it be a charge against the Quakers, that they are eager in the pursuit of wealth, let it at least be mentioned in their favour, that, in their accumulation of it, they have been careful not to suffer their knowledge to take advantage of the ignorance of others, and that they have kept their hands clear of the oppression and of the blood of their fellow
In looking among the occupations of the Quakers, we shall find some who are brought up as manufacturers and mechanics.
the number of these is small.
Others, but these are very few, follow the sea. There may be here and there a mate or captain in the coasting employ. In America, where they have great local and other advantages, there may be more in the sea-faring line. But, in general, the Quakers are domestic characters, and prefer home.
There are but few, also, who follow the professions.
professions. Their education and their re ligion exclude them from some of these. Some, however, are to be found in the de partment of medicine; and others, as conveyancers, in the law.
Several of the Quakers follow agriculture. But these are few, compared with the rest of the Society, or compared with the number of those who formerly followed a rural life. Almost all the Quakers were originally in the country, and but few of them in the towns: but this order of things is reversing fast. They are flocking into the towns, and abandoning agricultural pursuits.
The reasons that may be given for this change may be the following. It is not at all unlikely, but that tithes may have had some influence in producing it. I am aware, however, it will be said, that a Quaker, living in the country, and strongly principled against these, would think it a dereliction of his duty to leave it on this account, and would remain, upon the principle, that an abode there, under the annual exercise of his testimony, would, in a religious point of view, add strength to his strength. But
it must be observed on the other hand, that where men are not obliged to remain under grievous evils, and can get rid of them merely by changing their occupation in life, and this honourably, it is in human nature to do it. And so far tithes, I believe, have had an influence in driving the Quakers into the towns. Of later years, as the Society has grown thinner in the country, I believe new reasons have sprung up. For the Quakers have had less opportunity of society with one another. They have been subjected also to greater inconvenience in attending their religious meetings. Their children, also, have been more exposed to improper connections in marriage. To which it may be added, that the large and rapid profits, frequently made in trade, compared with the generally small and slow returns from agricultural concerns, may probably have operated with many, as an inducement to such a change.
But whatever reasons may have induced them to quit the country, and settle in towns, no temporal advantages can make up to them, as a Society, the measure of their loss. For, when we consider that the Qua