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is peculiarly fitted for the habitation of the Quakers, on account of their peculiar love for the animal-creation. It would afford them a wide range for the exercise of this love, and the improvement of the benevolent affections. For tenderness, if encouraged, like a plant that is duly watered, still grows. What man has ever shown a

a proper

affection for the brute-creation, who has been backward in his love of the human race?




Trade-Trade seldom considered as a question of

morals-lut Quakers view it in this light-prohibit the Slave-trade---privateering-manufactories of weapons of war - also trade where the revenue is defrauded_hazardous enterprises fictitious paper--insist upon punctuality to words and engagements advise an annual inspection of their own affairs-regulations in case of bankruptcy.

I stated in the last chapter that some of the Quakers, though these were few in number, were manufacturers and mechanics ; that others followed the sea ; that others were to be found in the medical

profession, and in the law; and that others were occupied in the concerns of a rural life. I believe, with these few exceptions, that the rest of the Society may be considered as engaged in trade.

Trade is a subject which seldom comes under the discussion of mankind as a moral question. If men who follow it are honest


and punctual in their dealings, little is thought of the nature of their occupations, or of the influence of these upon the mind. It will hardly however be denied by moralists, that the buying and selling of commodities for profit is surrounded with temptations, and is injurious to pure benevolent or disinterested feeling; or that, where the mind is constantly intent upon the gaining of wealth by traffic, it is dangerously employed. Much less will it be denied, that trade is an evil, if any of the branches of it through which men acquire their wealth are productive of mischief either to themselves or others. If they are destructive to the health of the inferior agents, or to the morality of the persons concerned in them, they can never be sanctioned by christianity.

The Quakers have thought it their duty, as a religious body, to make several regulations on this subject. In the first place, they have made it a rule, that no person, acknowledged to be in profession with them, shall have any concern in the slave-trade.

The Quakers began to consider this subject, as a christian body, so early as in the beginning of the last century. In the

year 1727, they passed a public censure upon


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this trade. In the year 1758, and afterwards in the year 1761, they warned and exhorted all in profession with them “to keep their hands clear of this unrighteous gain of oppression.” In the yearly meeting of 1763 they renewed their exhortation in the following words: “We renew our exhortation, that friends every where be especially careful to keep their hands clear of giving encouragement in any shape to the slave-trade; it being evidently destructive of the natural rights of mankind, who are all ransomed by one Saviour, and visited by one divine light, in order to salvation : a traffic, calculated to enrich and aggrandize some upon the misery of others, in its nature abhorrent to every just and tender sentiment, and contrary to the whole tenor of the Gospel.”

In the same manner, from the year 1763, they have publicly manifested a tender concern for the happiness of the injured Africans; and they have not only been vigilant to see that none of thcir own members were concerned in this impious traffic, but they have lent their assistance with other Chriotians in promoting its discontinuance.

They They have forbidden also the trade of privateering in war. The Quakers consider the capture of private vessels by private persons as a robbery committed on the property of others, which no human authority can make reconcileable to the consciences of honest individuals. And


this motive they forbid it, as well as upon that of their known profession against war.

They forbid also the trade of the manufacturing of gun-powder, and of arms, or weapons

of war, such as swords, guns, pistols, bayonets, and the like, that they may stand clear of the charge of having made any instrument, the avowed use of which is the destruction of human life.

They have forbidden also all trade that has for its object the defrauding of the king either of his customs or his excise. They are not only not to smuggle themselves, but they are not to deal in such goods as they know, or such as they even suspect, to be 'smuggled, nor to buy any article of this description even for their private use. This prohibition is enjoined, because all Christians ought “to render to Cæsar the things that are Cæsar's,” in all cases where

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