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innocent purchasers can justify the endur- water of the State may be justly and ance of so great a public wrong as that wisely used for the purpose of the people, involved in the permanent alienation to a and all the people, of the State, in counprivate corporation of the water-supply try, town, and ciy. This is not the work and water-power of a great State.

of an hour. To a consideration of what The third bill is not so clearly right. those interests require we may return It protects the city ; it it leaves the hereafter. Here we record, for the direct country unprotected. A bill which allows benefit of all the people of the State of the municipality to go into any district of New York, and for the indirect benefit of the State and take its “surplus water” the people of other States, the peril which makes no account of the fact that country threatens, not the city only, but the State; districts may want their surplus water for and with it our conviction that the State their own use. To illustrate: In the High- should not be contented with simply prolands of the Hudson the water-supplies tecting the city from the covetousness and furnished by two sources in Orange corruption which endanger its life, which County have been within the last ten years it has partially done by the Fallows Bill, taken, one by West Point, the other by but should protect itself from what has the village of Cornwall-on-Hudson, for been well called the Ramapo octopus, by their own water-works. The latter also taking away from it the extraordinary relies upon its surplus water for its electric powers conferred upon it so carelessly by lighting. If the municipality of New York the act of 1895. The people of the State had taken this water-supply for its own ought to own and control the water-supply use, West Point and Cornwall would have of the State. That seems to us axiomatic. remained without water-works, and the lat- They ought to give it neither to a private ter without lights. It may be said that it nor yet to a municipal corporation. How is not essential that a village should have a they can wisely and efficiently accomplish water-supply, and that such supply is essen- this result is a question which we leave tial to the city; that the city cannot live to be considered hereafter. without it. That is true. But it does not follow that the city should be permitted to take the water wherever it can find it,

Good Friday regardless of the inconvenience which it may inflict on the country districts. The The inner history of the life of Christ opposition from this measure does not is suggested in its entirety during the come alone from the Ramapo Company; successive weeks of the Lenten season. it does not come chiefly from that com- The awakening to the consciousness of pany. It comes from rural communities oneness with the Father ; the message which object to making their water-supply from the Father; the divine power with dependent on the will of the city, much which that message was enforced and as the city objects to making its water- re-enforcéd; the sudden and decisive consupply dependent on the will of a private tact with the world, as man has made it, in corporation.

the temptation; the victory of the spirit No prophet can foretell to-day what over the lower aims of the world; the long twenty-five years hence will be the demand self-denial, patience, loneliness, and reve- . for the surplus water of the State. It is lation of ultimate truth in perfect characprobable that every considerab: town, ter; the descent into the shadow of death, and not improbable that every enterprising and the reascent into life : all these deep village, will by that time have its water- mysteries and typical experiences are works and its electric plant. The states recalled and commemorated between Ash man should look further ahead than five Wednesday and Easter. The instinct years. He should consider more than the which has given the place of first imporinterests of the city of New York. He tance to the death of our Lord has not been should not be thwarted in his endeavor to wholly wrong in result, though at times it secure the highest and best life of the has been misleading in doctrine, ritual, entire State by a too exclusive regard for and symbol. In Catholic countries it is innocent holders of Ramapo stock. He impossible to get away from the physical should seek to devise a plan by which the aspects of Good Friday: from the crucified body, the thorn-crowned head, the droop- portentous, not in the life of Christ the ing and smitten figure. The terrible sufferer, but in the life of man the executragedy is reproduced and kept in mind tioner. In the shadow of the cross sin by a realism which is often appalling and stands uncovered—the antagonist of the sometimes rep-Isive. One is made to feel loving God, the betrayer of the Christ, as if the uncounted years of the life of the mortal foe of men. the Lord were thrown into permanent eclipse by the three hours' agony on the cross. And in a large part of Christian

A Light-Bringer theology the fall of man instead of the breathing of the divine life into him has Out of a beautiful old home in the been the starting-point of human history, heart of one of the loveliest of old New and man's sin rather than God's love has England villages she has entered into the been made the foundation of what has larger life. Fourscore ļ ars of integrity, been called “the plan of salvation ;" as courage, widening sympathy, and dawning if salvation were something devised out- light have at last liberated her. Her whole side a man instead of being the true and life had been one of emancipation. Innormal fruition of his nature and life. In stead of depleting her vitality, advancing the literalism of Catholic art and of years transmuted it into something more Protestant theology the gloom of Good spiritual and tenacious; every decade Friday has overshadowed the glory of found her further on the path to freedom. Easter.

She moved steadily forward into clearer In this long-continued over-emphasis of knowledge and so into more tolerant and the death of Christ instinct has found deeply human relations with others. She justification in the searching light which had always loved the best, for she was Calvary throws on sin. The cross was born to rectitude and refinement; but she but an incident in the limitless life of confirmed the bent of her nature by her Christ; death has no place in the divine own choices; she grew out of fine, unconexperience. From the divine side the scious purity into conscious harmony with immense importance attached to Good the best in life and thought. Her opporFriday is a monstrous exaggeration; but tunities were of the best, but she was from the human side Good Friday still always greater than her opportunities; looms and will always loom portentous and her associations were fortunate and enrichawful on the field of history. On that ing, but her real fortune was in herself. day human hands frantically strove to From her earliest youth she seemed to destroy human hope ; men would have hear a voice calling from beyond the narkilled God if hate, blindness, greed, and row boundaries of her conscious life, and cowardice could have done it. They she followed with instinctive loyalty. She turned with rage on the one Helper among loved life and light with a passion of soul all their helpers who had not only light which seemed to bear her silently on into for the mind but life for the soul. And ever larger spheres. It was pathetic at the most awful aspect of this denial and times to see her standing, eager to pass crucifixion of the Divine lay in the fact on, but compelled to wait and learn. She that the Roman was only the executor of wanted all life and light now, and to be the will of the Jew. Christ was rejected, held back in a pursuit in which she never not by the world, but by the Church; not grew weary was at times a sore trial. It by moral outcasts, but by priests, Pharisees, is easy to imagine the burst of joy which and scribes. Let religious people study came to her when she found the barriers that awful fact, and ask what it means. down at last and the sky clear from horiThe hideousness of sin; its moral loath- zon to horizon. It will be bliss enough someness; the black horror of it; the for her, for many and many a day, to sit death at the heart of it as the final fruit still in the unshadowed Light and sun her of its corrupting processes; its gradual soul. There was a fellowship between defilement; its slow blinding the eyes; her nature and the sun; she loved high its insensible withdrawing of vitality from lights; she used to call herself a firewill and spirit--this is the revelation of worshiper; her whole nature kindled Calvary; and Good Friday is black and and glowed when warinth or light of love or thought touched her. So deep was powers, because they never completely put her idealism, so victorious her aspiration, them forth. Society is full of undeveloped, that faith and hope radiated from her. or partially developed, personalities : men She carried weaker and poorer natures who have possibilities to which they have with her by sheer force of superior vitality. not given full expression, powers which She was life incarnate, and now that she they have not thoroughly trained, capacihas gone to the source of life her whole ties which they have not adequately reccareer lies like a broad beam across the ognized. It is true that some men overyears. She was a child of the light, and work; that is to say, they do one thing too it shone from her as she walked along the continuously, or they do many things withways of men. Of such as she--born out adequate refreshment and variety; lovers of God and of their kind—there but very few men work to the top of their is, at the end, no association with earth; power. Very few men completely unfold the heavens are so near and real that the all that is in them. As the earth is full of mind instinctively recalls the words which treasures of all kinds, the existence of which fitly commemorate the light-bringers : is not yet suspected in many localities, The wise shall shine as the brightness of the and which are presently to bring private firmament,

fortunes and general prosperity to those And they that turn many to righteousness as localities, so there are men and women the stars for ever and ever.

the world over who are rich in power of

the highest kind, but who have no susUnused Power

picion of the fact because they have never

given themselves full development through One of the most interesting things in activity. More men and women fail by life is the unexpected development of reason of underestimation of their power power which sometimes takes place in than by reason of over-valuation. As a people who have before shown little or no rule, people of conscience do not take promise of exceptional energy or ability. themselves at an adequate valuation; This development is sometimes as great they do not believe enough in themselves. a surprise to the man in whom it takes If they believed more in their own replace as to his friends. He awakes to sources, they would make more out of their find himself in possession of a force the lives. It is astonishing how outward presence of which, even in the germ, he circumstances will sometimes evolve undid not suspect. What happens in such suspected energy from a man who has a case is not the sudden appearance in a heretofore been regarded as essentially man's nature of something which was not commonplace by his neighbors and by there before ; it is the sudden disclosure himself. When such a man feels the of something which has hitherto been pressure of conditions, he often awakes concealed. Men do not begin life fully to the possession of a power which redeveloped. Occasionally a man appears sponds quickly and adequately to a call who is as mature at twenty-five as at sixty, from without. Every great crisis calls, but this rarely happens, and when it does and does not call in vain, for energy, selfhappen it is a distinct limitation. Young sacrifice, and genius; but these things men, as a rule, are bundles of undevel. ought to come to the light by virtue of oped possibilities. They grow by putting in ward impulse ; they ought not to depend forth their strength; and the fullness on outward conditions. A man ought to and symmetry of their unfolding depend put forth all that is him as a matter of largely upon the completeness with which loyalty to himself and consecration to his they give out what is in them. When a fellows. He ought to lead in the evoluman suddenly discloses a power the pres- tion of spiritual energy rather than allow ence of which he did not suspect, he is himself to be dependent on some bugle simply putting forth what was always in call from without, To believe in ourselves him. He has created nothing new, he in the sense of regarding ourselves as full has taken nothing in from without; he of the germs of growth is not only to has simply used his own.

secure the highest growth, but it is to It is probably true that the great ma- render the finest service which a man can jority of men never fully realize their own render to his fellows,

[graphic]

THE NAVAL LYDDITE GUN. MR. BARNES IN THE FOREGROUND

I

The Boer War in Pictures (Mr. James Barnes, the special correspondent of The Outlook in South Africa, four of whose articles have already appeared in this paper, is now at the front with Lord Roberts. From his private letters we learn that several articles, written since that last published, have been forwarded by him to The Outlook. Unfortunately, either through the action of the military censorship or through the failure of native runners to get these articles to the post, none has reached us in time for this issue. The present article is, therefore, chiefy pictorial, and offers some interesting glimpses of camp life and of the fighting-line as shown in photographs sent by Mr. Barnes. With the pictures we print some extracts from a personal letter written under date of February 9.-THE Editors.]

AM just back here (Modder River Station) from the battle of Koodoesberg, and rode in over the veldt, some thirty miles, in a little over three

hours. The Highland Brigade had a smart little fight out there, and if it had not been for a slip, we would have brought back perhaps a thousand prisoners and a gun, for at one time we had them, to all appearances, in the hollow of our hand. I was sick at heart on Tuesday and Wednesday, for I lost one of the best friends I had made here—“ Freddie ” Tait, lieutenant of the Black Watch, and ex golfing champion of England. Such a fine chap, and such a good-looking, brave, jolly soldier! He had been severely wounded at Magersfontein, and had returned to his regiment, was scheduled for promotion, and was in command of his company. He was about twenty-six, but he had with all his boyishness and simplicity a great deal of dignity and force, and his men worshiped him. We left here on Saturday, about four thousand strong, to go down the Riat River to Koodoesberg Drift, for what reason I don't know, except that the enemy were there. Well, we camped first at Thorn Hill, and next day, Sunday, made a forced march (we had only four hundred lancers with us and one battery of field artillery, almost all Highlanders) to Koodoesberg. I shall never forget that march. It was scorching hot-blazing, glaring heat, without a breath of wind. Of course the Highlanders drank up all the water in their water-bottles in the first hour, and then it began. They fell out literally by scores; the ambulances could not begin to carry them, and there was no shade nearer than the river, two miles away, and the Boers even said to be there. Men went off their heads with heat and lack of water and fatigue. I was riding my old horse Julien, who is a big, strong beast, and I gave him up and loaded him with some poor kilties' things, and out of curiosity I put on the straps, cartridge-boxes, and all, and took a fellow's rifle.

No wonder the poor chaps felll They were loaded down with 150 rounds of ammunition, blanket, greatcoat, haversack, rations for two days—total weight fifty pounds, besides their rifles. They were soft from their long period of inaction in camp, and had been marched the last seven miles without a halt. Before long affairs looked serious. As we headed to the north, we neared the river, and the men began to drop out and make for the water. At one place I counted over a hundred. They wouldn't leave. They just lay there and drank. It was almost two o'clock; the lancers' patrol reported that the Drift was held, and we expected to have a fight on our hands by four. The column struggled on, and soon the Drift was in sight. We heard shots ahead, but luckily there were only a handful of the enemy there, and the lancers drew them off. As soon as we had forded the stream I ceased my soldiering, and sought shelter and food in a big mud-brick house. A correspondent generally picks out the best place he sees for headquarters, and then the General comes along and turns him out; and this is what happened here—but I digress. Parties were sent back to gather in the stragglers. But many did not get in till midnight, and some not at all. One poor chap was found three days later out on the veldt—some fools of lancers filled him full of water at once and killed him; one man died, one has never been found, and two have just come in from a native kraal. The kilt is the most foolish dress for this country, and is responsible for much discomfort and actual suffering from sand and sun. Next day we had a fight, a little one ; next day a bigger one, next day a bigger one yet, and on the fourth we cleared out, and at one time I had my doubts if I would ever see Modder River. The Highlanders redeemed themselves, for they fought stubbornly and eagerly against odds, for the Boers attacked us each day and tried to force us back. Thanks to General MacDonald's cool leadership and example, we held our position, and, as I say, mighty near bagged the lot on the kopje where our men had been fighting them for two days. I must say the Boers fought bravely, but they will not come into the open, which is wise, to say the least, for at hand to hand Tommy can beat them. Poor Tait had raised himself a little to look over the ground, and a Boer marksman saw him (the fight was at about twelve hundred yards, over ground strewn with great boulders), and a Mauser bullet went through his chest from side to side. He just said, “ They have done for me this time,” and pulled his helmet over his face. It was impossible to move him or even to sit up. Not far behind him, but not in quite such a hot place, lay Captain Blair, of the Seaforths. Two Highlanders lay alongside of him trying to keep him from bleeding to death from a horrible shell wound in his throat, but to no avail. Later in the day I helped carry his body down the hill, but poor Tait could not be moved until after dark; he was still alive, but died at twelve o'clock. This is about what war is-long-range firing with smokeless powder at an almost invisible enemy-a whining, buzzing, and cracking in the air, and here and there a man says “Oh,” and the next day he is buried. And now for a sudden change. The crisis has come here; before three or four days have passed Lord “Bobs" will have fought the biggest battle, maybe, of the war. We have 40,000 troops here, and we move soon.

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