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PAONIAS MYOPS

Paonias astylus, which may be found on high blueberry in the autumn, and is green splashed with carmine, as are the leaves, while its caudal horn is of the shape and color of the buds of next year's leaves, and is even bifid at the tip as they are. He must have enough sense of beauty to appreciate the often exquisite coloring, and enough self-control to put aside all dislike to crawling things. He must have patience to provide suitable food for his cap tives day after day, to keep their pupæ through the winter, and perhaps fail to get, after all, the moth from his rarest specimen, and then to begin again the next season, hoping for better luck. For very much is luck even under the best conditions of knowledge and experience. But the luck is often wonderfully good, as when a famous entomologist wrote to me for eggs of a certain sphinx moth, and within a few weeks, as I was walking along a muchtraveled street, I saw projecting from the edge of an upright stone a triangular something which suggested the tip of a moth's wing. On approaching it I found it not only a moth of the desired kind, but a female, and I succeeded in putting it into my pocket tin and then into a cage at home. There it laid eggs galore, and I was able to send scores of them to England, besides rearing many myself and getting the full lifehistory of the species. My being at that place on that day was clear luck, for I had . no reason to expect any moths there. Such an experience is very exciting, and gives fresh hope and energy.

There is no thrilling struggle to capture a caterpillar, but there is sometimes a desperate search for it when it has quietly curled up and dropped into deep grass at one's first touch on the plant.

A caterpillar once found is not likely to get away, as one's largest fish usually does, but it may be found covered with tiny white eggs deposited by a parasitic fly, which means that even if the caterpillar lives long enough to become a pupa it will not emerge as a moth, but will be devoured by the grubs within its body. There is just

one chance for it. If the eggs are recently laid and are not too numerous, a human friend can break or remove them before thegrubs have hatched and eaten their way into the body of their host, who then will be able to live out his allotted life, as far as they are concerned.

Like fishing, caterpillar-hunting has its good and bad days, and with no apparent cause for the differ

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spots glaring at us as if they could really see and meant to frighten us away, instead of being mere marks on their bodies. We found long, slender caterpillars of clear golden-green with a bright yellow line on each side-Scoliopteryx libatrix, the Herald moth." We found one or two caterpillars of Paonias excæcatus, and of Hye perchiria io, whose mossy spines sting like nettles. But the chief treasure was a beautiful caterpillar lying in a curved line on a leaf, so like a white, Auffy feather that for a moment it deceived us.

Its long, silky, white hairs were CITHEROXIA REGALIS

parted on the dorsal line, and one's eyes, and also because more cater- drooped over its sides and head-in fact, pillars may be found feeding in shade than over both ends. Beneath the hairs the in sunshine; but some dull days give no body was of a blue-green color. We found specimens.

four of these later, but never succeeded in There is a fascination in approaching a getting the moth or finding any one who shrub or sapling without knowing what it could identify the larva, although we feel

may have in store, and then finding it a sure that it was an Acronycta and nearly · treasure-house filled with spoils. I still akin to A. populi. When ready to pupate,

remember finding on a Vermont hillside, its white hairs became very gray, and it when I was a beginner, a willow which burrowed a deep hole in a bit of rotten hung full of gifts, like a Christmas-tree. wood, covered the entrance with a parchOn it my friend and I found the bright ment-like web of silk, and never emerged. green larvæ of Papilio turnus lying on their This was the case with all five. Probwebs of silk, each on its leaf, their eye- ably they were stung by parasites and the

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LAGOA CRISPATA

dense hairs prevented our discovering the cocoons on a wild-cherry tree four feet fact.

high, and once I cut a small branch which A wild-cherry tree may have many had forty-seven cocoons dangling from it, treasures to offer, from the larvæ of each wrapped in its withered leaf. The A tacus promethea, very common in the caterpillars may be found on ash and tulip Eastern States, to rare, sphingid cater- trees, as well as willow, sassafras, and wild pillars. Promethea is a very comfortable cherry, and they cover the long stems of creature to rear, and a very attractive these leaves in the same way, and bind one. I know that many persons can them to the twig with silk. see no beauty in any crawling thing, but Allacus angulifera is so closely allied to it is there nevertheless. These caterpil- them that it has been considered only a lars are green beneath and have a whitish variety, though it is now held to be a bloom, making them seem white above. species, and the caterpillars are so similar They have dots of polished blue-black in that the same figure would serve for both. transverse rows, and near the head four In color angulifera is creamier white and tubercles of coral-red with a black ring at its dots are not raised as much as those the base of each. Near the other end of of promethea. One difference I have the body is one yellow tubercle.

always found--the caterpillars have never When these caterpillars are ready to spun over the stems and twigs, but have spin, each selects a leaf, draws the edges drawn leaves together and spun between somewhat together with silken threads, thein, the cocoons falling with the leaves then covers the stem with silk, and binds in autumn instead of hanging on the twigs it to the twig with a tight band of tough all winter. The moths differ much in silk. After this it crawls back to the leaf, color, and slightly in marks, from promepulls its edges closer and closer together, thea. They are more common in the and spins a tough cocoon in the tube thus mid-West than in the East. formed. I have often found twenty such The wild cherry may also offer the one

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horned larvæ of Paonias excæcatus, apple- him by a walnut, butternut, or hickory green in color, roughly granulated, and tree inhabited by Citheronia regalis. It is having yellow oblique lines on each side. brown of various shades, and its long tuPaonias myops may be found there, too, bercles are rough with black spines. The apple-green with horn and obliques, and one photographed was almost full grown. usually having irregular spots of bright These are less common in the Eastern carmine, exactly like the red spots on States, but may be found in New England wild-cherry leaves. Sometimes there are occasionally. They go into the ground to two rows of such spots on each side, pupate, as does their near relative, Eacles sometimes one row, sometimes only two imperialis, which lives on pine, maple, and or three, as in this specimen. Sometimes some other trees, and is common in the the spots are dull reddish-brown instead East. It is not as formidable in appearof carmine, and once in a while they are ance as regalis, and may be either brown wanting altogether.

or green. Both are easy to rear and make Myops, excæcatus, and geminatus-which fine large moths. lives on poplar, oak, and willow—are On the same trees with the formidableof about the same size and shape, and looking regalis may be found pale-green could be distinguished with difficulty if sphingid caterpillars, rough with whitish myops lacked the red spots. All the granulation, and having heads shaped like smerinthids burrow in earth to pupate. apple-seeds, the point being uppermost.

Poplars are good hunting-ground for These caterpillars are Cressonia juglandis, caterpillars, as, besides geminatus and ex- and are more common in the mid-West cæcatus, they may offer Triptogon modesta, and in the South than in the East. which is much

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When young, the caterpillars are covered and strong, and need rubber bands on their with white, downy hairs, but the last molt tins unless the tins are too deep for them or two gives them tawny and not quite as to reach bottom and top at the same time. Auffy hairs. Whatever their color, these If they can do this, they are pretty sure hairs sting like nettles, and it is pleas to push off the cover, crawl out, and then anter to handle the caterpillars carefully, to be met in the hall or on the stairs by though the stinging pain lasts but a short that member of the household who most time. The caterpillars may be found on the fears or dislikes crawling things. The beach plum also. They spin small, com- results of such an encounter are not always pact cocoons, and come out very pretty pleasant for the caterpillar-hunter, espemoths, creamy white with some black lines, cially if he is a small boy. and a crinkled look which gives them their The nearest relative of these caterpilspecific name.

lars lives on sweet potato and convolvuTheir next of kin, Lagoa opercularis, lus vines, and is a more Southern species, is similar, and is found more often in the P. cingulata. All go into the ground to South on orange and lemon trees.

pupate, and the pupæ have long tongue

CRESSONIA JUGLANDIS There come days when one does not cases making a loop from the head to the care to go far afield, and then the garden wing-covers, and standing out like the offers chances of partly hidden treasure. handle of a jug. The tomato and potato plants may well In the heat of the day these caterpillars repay careful inspection, especially early crawl down and hide under leaves, or in in the morning or towards sunset. Then the ground, at the foot of their food may be found, from late June till October, plants. They make great gray moths the large sphingid caterpillars, Protoparce with black and white marks. Celeus and carolina and P. celeus, which are very simi- carolina have orange spots on the abdolar. These caterpillars are of just the men, and cingulata has pink ones. color of the leaves, and may be found These “great gray moths” are most most easily by looking for excreta on the often seen at garden flowers in the dusk, ground and then searching the stems or bumping their heads against lighted above it, or by finding a stem whose top windows. Honeysuckle and the yellow has only bare inid-ribs where leaves were, lilies have great attraction for them, and and tracing the eater by these remnants of their long tongues enable them to reach his feast. The caterpillars grow very large the nectar in these deep flower-tubes.

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