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in Syria, and preaching the gospel there with great success, the news soon returned to Jerusalem. The brethren there sent Barnabas to their assistance. Barnabas, the messenger and evangelist of Jerusalem, sent by the whole congregation, soon entrs upon his labors in that field. His mission was not vain: many more were added to the Lord, and the brethren recently converted were refreshed and confirmed by his warm and pathetic exhortations. In carrying out the designs of his mission he repairs to 'Tarsus in Cilicia, Paul's native city, in quest of that great hero of the faith. Having reinforced himself and the brotherhood with this great functionary of heaven, they laid seige again to the capital of Syria; and after one year's conjoint la bors there a multitude were not only converted, but taught the Chris tian religion. About this time some of the prophets of Jerusalem wert down te see the Antiochan church, amongst whom was the distinguish. prophet Agabus, who predicted an immediate famine in the land. The brethren in Antioch, believing this prophecy, set about making provision for it, levying contributions and raising a fund for those who in Judea might need their assisiance. Paul and Barnabas, now finding it best to revisit Jerusalem, are made the messengers of the church in Antioch, carrying home with them to the mother church these gifts of her daughter in Antioch. What a beautiful and instructive lesson! The messengers of peace descend to Antioch, freighted with the word of life for the Antiochans; and they are sent back to the mother church laden with the first fruits of the faith of the new converts. Was there not co-operation here?
The Antiochan congregation, now well educated and established in the faith, proceeds to set apart Paul and Barnabas to a special mission under their supervision. They are dismissed and enter upon the work of preaching the word, planting churches, setting things in order, and ordaining them elders in every church. From Antioch they go by land to Selucia, a seaport; thence sail to the island of Cyprus; thence by foot they traverse the island to Paphos; convert the governor Sergius Paulus, and sail from that port to Panphilia, and proceed to Perga.They go up as far as Antioch in Pisidia. After some stay there they turn eastwardly to Jerusalem, where they were abundant successfu'. Thence, when persecuted, they fled to Lystra, a Lycaonian city; and badly treated there, they went to Derbe, where Paul was stoned. Thence they returned to Lystra, Iconium, and Antioch, and descending to Attica, they sailed directly back to Syria, and safely arrived at Antioch whence they had departed. During this time they particularly visited seven cities, traversed by land and sea some five or six hundred miles; and having set things in order in all the churches, and fulfilled
their mission, they return to those who sent them, and give them a full account of their labors in the Lord. That ministry being now accomplished Paul and Barnabas resume their labors in Antioch, and continue there until another great emergency arose.
They are then deputed to visit Jerusalem touching the debate on the necessity of circumcising the Gentiles; and passing through Phenicia and Samaria, they relate the conversion of the Gentiles and occasion great joy to all the brethren. The Apostles and Elders in Jerusalem assemble to consult upon this affair, and fully debated the whole subject. Several speeches being made, a resolution offered by James is accepted, and in carrying it into effect a committée consisting of Judas and Silas was appointed to carry a written address to the Gentile churches in Antioch, Syria, and Cilicia. These accompanied Paul and Silas back to Antioch, and by their letters and oral instruotions were of much use to the breihren in that large and distinguished church.
From this brief sketch, taken from the first chapters of church his. tory, we may at once perceive the propriety of our sixth specification of the important suggestions found in the New Testament on the subject of church organization. In this narration of facts we are apply. ing the inductive mode of reasoning that we may arrive at the most satisfactory conclusions on this most important subject.
If, then, the Spirit of God taught the church of Antioch in Syria 10 set apart functionaries for the surrounding country to preach, baptize, gather congregations, ordain elders, and set all questions to rest, why should not other churches do the same things when exigencies requiro it! It need not be objected that she chose an Apostle of Christ for one, and made another Apostle of her own to accompany him. Paul was directly called by the Lord in person; Barnabas was selected by the Spirit through the church. If, then, the Antioch church by divine wisdom chose her best gifts and sent them, let us do likewise. And if, when these ministers fulfilled their mission and returned to the church, they faithfully reported progress and returned to their duties there, let all our itinerant ministers learn that when they have fulfilled their respective commissions; they too are to give an account of their stewardship and await the approvals of the brethren. And if when any question of general importance and difficulty arises among churches, ought they not to follow the example of the first churches, approved by the Holy Spirit, send proper persons to such churches or assemblies of brethren as either may be agreed upon by the parties, or as may occasionally meet on such emergencies?
And, finally, if even after Paul and Barnabas had once visi:ed and set in order the things wanting in Salamis, Paphos, Perga, Antioch in Pisidia, Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe, they thought it expedient to make a second visit, may not we either by stated meetings in a given district, or by stated visits by public functionaries to the surrounding churches, counsel and co-operate with each other in all great public emergencies, and thus further that greatest and best of all earthly causes by exercising a constant supervision of those districts around as, and cooperating in all efforts necessary to the furtherance of the gospel? But as we proceed through the sacred history of the New Testament we shall have more reason to urge to the adoption of such measures as will prevent the injuries now being inflicted on the cause by some novices, and call forth and sustain energies more in keeping with the high character of Christ's church, and more promotive of her prosperity than the present haphazard system of operations which accident, and not choice, has inflicted upon us.
THE GARDEN OF GETHSEMANE AND BETHANY.
Beyond all question, the most interesting and memorable spot which this celebrated valley (the valley of Jehosaphat) contains, is the garden of Gethsemane. To this garden an undying interest attaches, as the scene of our Lord's ayony. “When Jesus had spoken these words, he went forth with his disciples over the brook Cedron, where was a garden, into which he entered.” And here it is lying at the foot of the Mount of Olives, on the east side of the Cedron, and occupying the very spot one's eye would turn lo, looking up from the page of Scripture." It is an even plat of ground, not above fifty-seven yards square, enclosed by a low broken stone fence. A foot-path intersects it'in an oblique direction; and as the Monks have determined that this is the ground on which Judas walked when he betrayed his Master with a kiss, they have walled it off from the rest, and pronounced it accursed. Eight venerable olive trees still grow here, and vindicate its claim to be regarde: as the very garden to which Christ resorted on the night alluded to, and where he offered the prayer-"Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me.” The soil below them is bare, without flower or verdure of any kind, as if the penal fires which smote the human nature of the Son of God with such terrible energy, had withered also the earth on which he stood, and dried up all the springs of its fertility. No more fiuing spot could have been chosen for the awful event, of which, eighteen hundred years ago, it was the scene, and which has given to it an eternal interest. Overhung on the ane side by the mountain, and on the other by the batilements of the temple and city, while the shadows of the night were still further deepened by the spreading olives of the garden— this was the very spot on which the soul of our surety, which now began to be “exceedingly sorrowful,” would naturally turn. The wilderness could not bave afforded him a more seciuded spot, where his sorrows might flow
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unseen; and here he was near at hand, and ready against the hour when he was to be "led as a lamb to the slaughier." With regard to the olives of the modern Gethsemane, the Monks affirm that they are the literal trees which stood here on the night referred to. This is impos sible, since all the trees in the neighborhooil of Jerusalem were cut down by Titus to serve in the seige of the city. The olive possesses the power of shooting out afresh after it has been cut; and it is just possible that the modern olives of Gethsemane are stems from the old roots. The trees are unquestionably of great age and of enormous size. 'The monuments we have described pariake deeply in the desolation which characterizes all the scenery around Jerusalem. It has a withered and ruinous aspect. The western acclivity has a white, chalky appearance. The generally dry bed of the Cedron, which occupies the bottom-the mouldering tomb-stones in the Jewish and Turkish burial grounds--the grey rocks at the bottom of the mountain-the inclosing hills, whose sides nearly naked, are of a dull red color, and relieved only by a few black and parched vines, with some groves of wild olive trees the silent city above, “whence no smoke rises, no noise proceeds”_"from the ruinous state of all these tombs, overthrown, broken, and half open, you would imagine that the last trump had already sounded, and that ihe valley of Jehosaphat was about to render up its dead." No one can survey the scene without calling to mind the touching lament which the Saviour poured over the city in the days of her pride, as he surveyed her from the Mount of Olives, “O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them who are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would not.” And how awfully has the closing prediction been fulfilled! “Behold, your house is left onto you desolate.”
Beyond the Mount of Olives, on the east, is the village of Bethanythe quiet home of the happy family which "Jesus loved." The distance is not more than two miles from Jerusalem. The path winds over the lower heights of Olivet, and has been “sanctified” by the feet which so often trod it at eventide. Here the last evenings of our Saviour on earth were passed; for we are told, that, leaving ihe stormy scene of the day's labors, he "went out of the city into Bethany.” On our way to the village we pass the spot where radition has fixed on as the site of the fig tree which Jesus cursed. The path is still bor. dered by a few straggling fig trees. Descending the eastern side of the hill, we enter Bethany-at this day a small hamlet, occupied by Arabs, the fields around lying uncultivated and covered with rank grass and wild flowers. It is easy to imagine the deep and still beauty of the spot, when it was the home of Lazarus and his sisters Martha and Mary. Defended on the north and west by the Mount of Olives, it enjoys a delighiful exposure to the southern sun. The grounds around are obviously of great fertility, though quite neglected; and the prospect to the southeast commands a magnificent view of the Dead Sea and the plains of Jordan. The Monks undertake to show the ruins of the house in which Lazarus lived. The stones are large, and and the architecture of a sombre cast; but the building unquestionably is of a much more recent construction than the time of Lazarus. Near to it is shown his tomb, and travellers are disposed to grant that this may indeed be the sepulchre at which he who was the Resurrection and the Life" stood and cried, “Lazarus, come forth.” It is obviously of great age; and if not the very tomb, in all probability it is similar in character and construction to that which Lazarus did indeed occupy. A flight of steps leads down into a square chamber hewn in the rock. A second descent communicates with another small room, in the side of which is a recess large enough to contain three bodies. We are allowed to suppose," says Elliot, "that kindred love had led Martha and Mary to select a resting place for their bro' her, where their own mortal remains might sleep with his till the day of resurrection."
Modern Judea, Ammon, Moab, &c. &c.
THE MYSTERY OF MESMERISM AND SOMNAMBULISM
EXPLAINED. ANIMAL Magnetism has for some years amused and bewildered the lovers of the marvellous. Ridiculed as a mere allusion or delusion, it has nevertheless perplexed the scientific; its effects are too palpable to be denied; but any rational solution of the cause or causes in which they have originated has hitherto eluded detection. The honor of unveiling this mystery was reserved for Mr. James Braid, an eminent surgeon in Manchester, who, having witnessed the recent experiments of Monsieur Lafontaine, in the Athenæum of that town, determined, if possible, to bring the system to the test of physiological and anatomi. cal principles. This genileman having satisfied his own mind that he could produce the phenomenon without personal contact, and even induce sleep when in a different room from the person to be thrown into a state of somnolency, announced a public lecture on the subject, which he delivered at the Manchester Athenæum on Saturday last, before seven hundred persons.
Mr. Braid first placed on the table a common black wine bottle, in the mouth of which was a cork having a plated top. The individual on whom the experiment was to be performed was seated on a chair, and directed to gaze intently at the cork without winking or averting the eyes. The cork was about two feet from the person operated upon, whose head was inclined backwards, forming with the object an angle of forty five degrees. In this position he remained for about five minutes, when profound sleep was produced.
The second esperiment was completed in the same time. In the third case a bandage was placed round the head for the purpose of retaining in an immoveable position a common bottle cork, a little above the roof of the nose, as the object to be gazed at; and in about four minutes a complete state of somnolency ensued. In this case was proved by inability of the patient 10 open the eyelid, although consciousness was in no respect suspended, as he was able to reply distinci. ly to any question. The fourih experimen! failed, either ihrough the noise that prevailed, or owing to the person not fixing his gazing continually on the objeci.
. The fifth was successful; and although the party made a desperate effort to open his eyes, so much as to agitate his whole frame, they