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as gave to the humblest penitent, though a beggar, at least as good a chance as to a king.
Few men have ever triumphed over prosperity. Millions have vanquished adversity compared with the noble and puissant few who have held riches, honor, power in abeyance according to the divine precept. I have, then, almost despaired of all our Websters, Clays, Calhouns, Jacksons, Johnsons, Everetts, &c. &c., notwithstanding the decent respect which they occasionally exhibit to the Christian religion, as they suppose, when they visit any popular place of worship. To seek political power and the stately chairs of high office, requires a discipline of mind, and education, and habits, opposite as the poles to the ways and means of bliss and eternal honor.
But from this circuit to return to our tour:-From Lexington, helped forward on our journey by our worthy brother Stone, of Madison, we met our appointments in Richmond and Winchester. In each place we delivered two addresses to very large and attentive audiences. In Madison I learned that about half of its whole population are either directly or relatively allied to the reformation. While in Richmond a proposition from the Rev. Mr. Brown, Presbyterian Pastor of that place, was presented to us for an amicable discussion of the points at issue between us and the Presbyterians; which was met with the same frankness on our part in which it professed to be made. Formerly, Mr. Brown observed, his brethren rather stood off from public discussion; but now they had rather changed their views of the expediency of such an attitude, and were resolved to meet in a friendly oonference or discussion on the points in debate at present. The substance of the overture on his part was, that a number of persons, selected by our brethren, should meet at Lexington, or some other point, a number of persons to be appointed by the Synod of Kentucky, and there confer upon those topics. At which meeting I consented to be present; provided only, that if we should go into a regular debate, that out of the most respectable of said delegation one be selected whose authority with the people was the highest in the state-such as the President of their College at Danville—and with such a person I would go into a regular debate on snch of those points as the denomi. nation would select at the present crisis, of most interest to the whole community; or, that I would go into the whole disputel territory between us and that respectable denomination, To all of which Mr. Brown very readily assented. It was then proposed by me that the propositions should be clearly drawn out and the preliminaries satisfactorily arranged before the time of meeting, and that as early a period as was compatible with our mutual convenience would be selected.-
All of which being readily assented to, we separated with the understanding that I should more formally hear from Mr. Brown on the whole premises shortly after my arriving at home, about the first of September.
From Richmond and Winchester we proceeded to Paris, North Middleton, and Mount Sterling. At all these points we had very pleasant interviews with our old brethren and acquaintance; and addressing those in attendance on the great subject of the present crisis in our denomination and the world, we moved forward by the way of Sharpsburg and Flemingsburg, to May's Lick. At Mount Sterling we had but a short interview with our veteran brother John Smith, of Raccoon memory. This sturdiest of Kentucky's mighty sons has been much affficted in his family, and more (as I learned from the excellent sister Ryan on my way to Sharpsburg) in his own spirit by the unkind behaviour of some of his old brethren, instigated by the sly. plausible, and imposing James M.Vay, of Fairfield, Columbiana, fame-of Baltimore and Maryland renown-and lately of Richland, Ohio, celebrity-a man, indeed, too well known by both womankind and mankind in all those parts, to be capable of disturbing the mind, or of grieving the spirit of such a giant soul as that which animates the fading tabernacle of Montgomery John Smith. But, alas! leviathan himself is sometimes annoyed by a sea-snail; and the lion, king of the forest, by a feeble field-mouse! I wonder that the Christian people of Bath and Montgomery could endure it—that a well-known, far-famed, and highly esteemed brother, of more than a quarter century's residence among them, should be assailed or in any way incul. pated by a vagrant preacher unknown to them, and without a clear and full recommendation from any church in the universe.
But John Smith needs a little chastisement, it is alleged, for having been meddling with politics, and for having, in the late revolutionary canvass, or some time before it, in a day of great political warmth, when the pulse of Jacksonism, or Clayism, or some other man-ism was raging above all other febrile heat, presumed to vote- I know not how, nor for whom—but in a way not wholly canonical, as some of his more erudite brethren decided. He is not regarded by those who know him as at all addicted to politics; but if a preacher of the gospel, when the political thermometer is at 212 degrees, should presume to vote, and only give one of his strongest reasons for it, he is sure to offend some of the flock; and for that reason it is very problematical whether Christian preachers and chureh elders should warmly espouse any political partizan interest
But no man need preach to Elder John Smith a sermon on such a theme. He is boih theoretically and
now experimentally acquainted with the whole subject, in all its bearings; and if the brethren will do him justice, he is disposed to do them and the cause all possible justice.
At Paris resides the Rev. Mr. Rice, formerly of Bardstown, Ky., alluded to in the commencement. He is set for the defence of the old Westminster theology, with, perhaps, so much modification as would suit it to the genius of Kentucky. He has been challenging the brotherhood for debate on so much of that system as is connected with infant sprinkling and its appendages. Our good brother Rains, after much provocation, was induced to accept the challenge; but I have not yet heard of its disposal. There was, indeed, a rumor that Mr. Rice retreated from his threatening eminence, and has become quiet on the premises. But of this I speak not confidently.
The cause is onward in all those counties through which I passed. At May's Lick they had almost completed a very spacious and substantial meeting-house. It was so far completed on my passing through that place, that I had the pleasure of addressing about one thousand persons comfortably seated on one floor. This substantial house is indeed a great honor to the church, and especially to a few individuals, who, like brethren Runyan, Sandidge, Richardson, &c., are forward in every good work that requires money.
After all, liberality is one of the best pledges of a person's attachment to the Christian institution. Christ's redemption is a scheme of celestial and divine liberality. Abel gave a bleeding lamb as a sin-offering for himself which God had given him; but God gave his only begotten Son, the Heir of all things, and heaven with him, for an ungrateful world. The belief of this opens the heart of even the miser, if such a one by any possibility could believe it. Good men are always liberal according to their means, and according to the objects claiming their bounty. The building of meeting-houses and of schools for youth are among the advance guard in the army of civilization, and are amongst all Christian people viewed as most benevolent objects-next to the proclamation of the gospel, sending abroad the Bible, and visiting the poor, the sick, and the afflicted with the means and comforts of life.
In church architecture our brethren are making very great improvement—so far at least as substantial, plain, and convenient houses are contemplated. The inclined plane floors, low desk, not high ceilings, plenty of windows, accessible and modest pews, commend their new buildings to all men of science and Christian taste. From Louisville to Maysville, on the public thoroughfare, every town of consideration has now a respectable meeting-house and a flourishing congregation.
THE NATURE OF THE CHRISTIAN ORGANIZATION,
Laws or EvideNCE APPLICABLE TO THE QUESTION OF THE CHRISTIAN
ORGANIZATION. That there can be organizations amongst Christians, both good and bad, has been sadly proved by the history of Protestant sects. If there be even the germs of a divinely appointed organization, any departure from it must be exceedingly pernicious. When, therefore, a great body of Christian people awaken to the painful conviction that they occupy a sort of church position de facto, without a good organization, and almost without any organization at all, the eventfulness of their investigations into the true Christian organization, is calculated 10 penetrate the pious heart with the deepest solemnity. The edification of the body of Christ, the standard of Christian character, the extension of the Redeemer's kingdom, the stability of sound doctrine; nay,
the healthy existence of Christianity itself, within certain bounds, and amongst certain professed Christians, are all deeply involved. With what strong control over the prepossessions, prejudices, and passions of our nature, with what prayerful and child like reliance upon God's guidance, and with what zeal and perseverance should this investigation be commenced and prosecuted! Only thus can the result be expected to conform to the divine will, and to conduce to the welfare and advancement of the dear Redeemer's kingdom!
With a most earnest and prayerful desire of aiding some little in this eventful investigation, the writer begs leave to introduce to the readers of the Harbinger the question at the head of this article-the Christian organization, is it ascertainable? If so, how?
Some remarks upon the Laws of Evidence in general may not be out of place. Though the inductive is the only true method of investigation, and though it is of very general application, it would be erroneous to infer that there are no truths save those which are sus ceptible of inductive proof. The fact is, these are self-evident truths or axioms-inductive truths-and inferential truths. Of the selfevident truths, some go before the induction, and some follow after; whilst all inferential iruths become evident, of course, subsequent to the induction. For example;
It being proved that Christ has established a church, that it has some organization becomes self evident. It being proved that the germs alone of this organization are discernable in the New Testament, one will infer that their more perfe development is to be looked for in the uncorrupt age immediately subsequent; and another will infer that all beyond the mere germs has been intentionally left for human enactment. In neither case has there been a departure from the induclive method. The question of the soundness of the inference is to be referred partly to correct logic, and in part to collateral endorsement.
The position either that the scripture contains no vestiges of a church organization; that it contains the gems of such an organizarion, or that it discloses it in its fulness and perfection, is altogether a priori. It is self-evident, however, that one of the three alternatives must be true. To ascertain which, is the province of sound induction. It is the design of the present article to prove the negative of the last of these alternatives; or, in other words, to prove that the New Testament alone does not furnish data enough from which to construct a complete system of church organization.
There are several general considerations which may advantageously be disposed of, preliminary to the main argument. For example:
The Old Testament did purport to lay down definitely, and in detail, an organization of a particular church, for a limited period of time. The books have come down to us which contain the utmost minutia of that aplendid and wonderful ritual. The inference is irresistable, that, had the same allwise Author of the more simple, but perpetual and universal Christian system, designed to designate the details of its external organization, we should have found in the New Testament certain books strictly analogous to Leviticns, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. Whereas, in point of fact, nearly all such notices in the New Testament are strictly casual and incidental.
It is forther very remarkable that all the leading Protestant sects have confidently referred to the Scriptures alone in proof of their distinctive peculiarities. It is but a very short time since a work issued from the New England press, laboring to vindicate the divine right of INDEPENDENCY!!! "The evidence, at the outset, is, therefore, more than presumptive, that no model of church government is plainly and fully laid down in scripture, since such opposing models have been contended for with equal heat and virulence.
Even where the main action is expressly enjoined, not only is the word of God silent with regard to nearly all of its accidents, but often, also, with regard to many of its essentials.
It will advance the ends of my main argument to give a striking example of this in the case of the Lord's supper. Beyond all controversy that is a DIVINE INSTITUTION. But how much do we know with regard to this sacred rite from the word of God alone? Thus much only-that bread and wine are to be received by believers, in memory of the death of Christ, until his coming again. "Are these the only essentials of the action? By no means. The action cannot be repeated—the sacrament is never administered without a practical decision upon several of the essentials of that action not here included. The administrator, the place where, the time how often, the attitude and words in which, are all, I will not say essential to the right celebration of the breaking of bread; but to its being celebrated at all. These points, and several others, are, therefore, of necessity, settled, right or wrong; scripturally or independently of scripture, every time the supper
is administered. The same is true of many parts of the MODE OF THE MODE;—in itsel! a delicate and important subject. Whether the bread shall be leavenod or unleavened; whether the wine shall be red or white, pure or mixed with water; whether the attitude in reception shall be sitting, kneeling, or standing, are, one will say, mere accidents, and too trifling to be brought into this discussion. But they are essentials of the mode of the mode, and must, practically, be settled one way or the other, every time the ordinance is celebrated. Whether the Lord's supper shall be administered once a year, once a month, once a week; whether to the clergy alone, or to the laivy also; whether only to men, VI.N 8.