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wine, and gave it to them also. Bue he conducted himself differently from others in one respect; for he compared the bread of the Passover to his own body, and the wine to his own blood, and led the attention of his disciples from the old object of the Passover, or deliverance from Egyptian bondage, to a new one, or deliverance from sin.

Since the time of our Saviour, we find that the Jews, who have been dispersed in various parts of the world, have made alterations in this supper; but all of them have concurred in retaining the bread and wine as component parts of it. This will be seen by describing the manner in which it is celebrated at the present day.

On the fourteenth day of the month Nissan, the first-born son of every family fasts, because the first-born in Egypt were smitten on that night. A table is then set out, and covered with a cloth. On the middle of it is placed a large dish, which is covered with a napkin. A large Passovercake of unleavened bread, distinguished by marks, and denominated “ Israelite," is then laid

upon this napkin. Another, with different marks, but denominated “ Levite,"

is laid upon the first; and a third, differently marked, and denominated “ Priest,” is laid upon the second. Upon this again a large dish is placed ; and in this dish is a shank-bone of a shoulder of lamb, with a small matter of meat on it, which is burnt quite brown on the fire. This is instead of the lamb roasted with fire. Near this is an egg, roasted hard in hot ashes that it may not be broken, to express the totality of the lamb. There is also placed on the table a small quantity of raw chervil, instead of the bitter herbs ordered ; also a cup with sale water, in remembrance of the sea crossed over after that repast ; also a stick of horseradish with its green top to it, to represent the bitter labour that made the eyes of their ancestors water in slavery; and a couple of round balls, made of bitter almonds pounded with apples, to represent their labour in lime and bricks. The seat or couch of the master is prepared at the head of the table, and raised with pillows, to represent the masterly authority of which the Jews were deprived in bondage. The meanest of the servants are seated at the table, for two nights, with their masters, mistresses, and


One cup

superiors, to denote that they were all equally slaves in Egypt, and that all ought to give the same ceremonial thanks for their redemption. Cups also are prepared for the wine, of which each person must drink four in the course of the ceremony. extraordinary is set on the table for Elias, which is drunk by the youngest in his stead.

All things having been thus prepared, the guests wash their hands, and seat themselves at table. The master of the family, soon after this, takes his cup of wine in his right hand; and, the rest at the table doing the same,

he says, together with all the others : “ Blessed art thou, O Lord, our God, king of the universe, who hast created the fruit of the vine!” This is followed by a thanksgiving for the institution of the Passover. Then the cup of wine is drunk by all. Afterwards the master of the family says, “ Blessed art thou, O Lord, our God, king of the universe, who hast sanctified us with thy commandments, and commanded us to cleanse our hands !"

Then the master of the family desires the guests to partake of the chervil dipped in salt water, which he gives them with an appropriate blessing. He makes them touch also the dish containing the egg and shank, bone of the lamb, and to repeat with him a formula of words suited to the subject. He then takes the second cup of wine, and uses words, in conjunction with the rest, expressive of the great difference between this and any other night. After this, copious remarks follow on the institution of the Passover. Then follow queries and answers of the Rabbies on this subject. Then historical accounts of the Jews. Then the fifteen acts of the goodness of God to the Jewish nation which they make out thus : He led the Jews out of Egypt. He punished the Egyptians. He executed judgment on their Gods. He slew their first-born. He gave the Jews wealth. He divided the sea


. for them. He made them pass through it as on dry land. He drowned the Egyptians in the same.


food to the Jews for forty years in the wilderness. He fed them with manna.

He gave them the sabbath. He brought them to Mount Sinai. He gave them the Law. He brought them to the land of Promise. He built the Temple.


When these acts of the goodness of God, with additional remarks on the Passover out of Rabbi Gamaliel, have been recited, all the guests touch the dish, which contains the three cakes of bread before mentioned, and say,

“ This, sort of unleavened bread, which we eat, is because there was not sufficient time for the dough of our ancestors to rise, until the blessed Lord, the king of kings, did reveal himself to redeem them; as it is written, “and they baked unleavened cakes of the dough, which they brought forth out of Egypt; for it was not leavened, because they were thrust out of Egypt, and could not tarry, neither had they prepared for themselves

any victuals.'” After this they touch the horse-radish, and join in a narration on the subject of their bondage. Then they take their third cup of wine, and pronounce a forinula of adoration and praise, accompanied with blessings and thanksgivings, in allusion to the historical part of the Passover. After this the master of the family washes his hands, and says,

“ Blessed art thou, O Lord, our God, king of the universe, who hast sanctified us with thy commandments, and commanded us




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