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heretofore, in preference to other nations; and if at any time they desire farther privileges, their desires shall be gratified by all the means possible: and if the said Most Serene King of Sweden shall grant greater and more ample privileges than the abovementioned, in Poland and Prussia, to any nation besides, or people not subject to Him, or shall suffer any nation or people to enjoy such larger privileges there, then the people and citizens of this Republic shall enjoy the same privileges in all respects, after they have desired it of His Most Serene Royal Majesty. And moreover, if any Edicts that have been published since 1650, happen to be burdensome to the English and Scots, dwelling or trading in Poland or Prussia, the same shall after this time be of no force, as far as it can be rendered so in the Dominions of the Most Serene King of Sweden; but the subjects of the said Lord Protector shall hereafter be entirely free from those burdens.

IX. As to the commerce to be carried on in America, it is expressly provided by law, that the subjects of no Republic besides shall be empowered to trade there in common without a special licence but if any of the subjects of the Most Serene King of Sweden, furnished with His recommendations, shall privately solicit such licence of the Lord Protector to trade to any of those colonies whatsoever, he will in this respect comply with the desire of His Most Serene Royal Majesty of Sweden, as far as the state of His affairs and of the Republic will for that time permit.

X. It shall be free for the subjects of the Most Serene King of Sweden, to fish and catch herrings and other fish in the seas and on the coasts which are in the Dominion of this Republic, provided the ships employed in the fishery do not exceed a thousand in number: nor while they are fishing shall they be any ways hindered or molested, nor shall any charges be demanded on the account of the fishing by the men of war of this Republic, nor by those who are commissioned privately to trade at their own expence, nor by the fishing vessels on the northern coasts of Britain, but all persons shall be treated courteously and amicably, and shall be allowed even to dry their nets on the shore, and to purchase all necessary provisions from the inhabitants of those places at a fair price.

Done at Westminster, the 17th of July, 1656.

TREATY between Great Britain and Sweden. Concluded at Whitehall, October, 21, 1661.*

(Translation from the Latin.)

I. First, it is concluded and accorded, that there be and remain a good, firm, sincere, and perpetual peace, amity, alliance, and correspondence between His Sacred Majesty the King of Great Britain on the one part, and His Sacred Majesty the King of Sweden on the other; and all and singular their Dominions, Kingdoms, Countries, Provinces, Islands, Plantations, Lands, Cities, Towns, People, Citizens, and generally all their subjects and inhabitants; so that each part treat and use the other with all real friendship and affection.

II. The said Confederates, their people, subjects and inhabitants, shall, as opportunity is offered, take care of, and promote the welfare of each other, and shall advertize each other, upon knowledge thereof, of all imminent dangers, plots, and conspiracies of enemies against the other; and as much as in them lies, oppose and hinder the same. Neither shall the one Confederate by himself or any else, treat of, act, or attempt any thing to the prejudice and disadvantage of the other, His lands or Dominions, in whatsoever place, whether at sea or land; nor shall any way assist the rebels, or enemies of the other to the damage of the Confederate; nor receive, or entertain within His Dominions any rebel or traitor who shall attempt any thing against the other's State, much less afford them any counsel, help, or favor, or permit it to be done by any of His subjects, people, and inhabitants.

III. The said Kings and Kingdoms shall take diligent care that as much as in them lies, all impediments and obstacles be removed, which have hitherto interrupted the freedom of navigation and commerce, as well between both nations, as with other people and countries within the Dominions, lands, seas, and rivers of either; and shall sincerely endeavour to assert

• Renewed by Article II of the Treaty of Orebro, 1812.

maintain, defend, and promote the aforesaid liberty of navigation and commerce, against all the disturbers thereof, by such ways and means as either in this present Treaty, or hereafter shall be agreed upon; neither shall they suffer that either by themselves, their subjects and people, or through their default, any thing done or committed contrary hereunto.

IV. That either of the aforesaid Confederates, their people and subjects may, without any safe-conduct, licence general or special, freely and securely go and enter by land or sea, in and to the Kingdoms, Countries, Provinces, Lands, Islands, Cities, Villages, Towns, whether walled or unwalled, fortified or otherwise,havens, and whatsoever dominions of the other, and there stay, and from thence return, or pass through; and in the same places, upon just prices, procure and have provision of victuals for their use and sustenance, and be used with all friendly offices. And that either Confederate their people and subjects may trade, and have commerce in all places, where commerce has hitherto been exercised in what goods and merchandizes they please, and may freely import and export the same, paying the customs which are due, and conforming themselves to the laws and ordinances of each kingdom, whether the same concern trade, or any other right; which presupposed, the people, subjects, and inhabitants of both Confederates shall have and enjoy in each other's Kingdoms, Countries, Lands and Dominions, as large and ample privileges, relaxations, liberties, and immunities as any other foreigner at present doth, or hereafter shall enjoy there.

V. No merchants, captains, and masters of ships, mariners, nor any other persons, ships, goods, or merchandizę belonging to either Confederate, shall, upon any public or private account, by virtue of any edict, general or special, within any the lands, havens, sea-roads, coasts, or dominions of the other, for any public service, or expedition of war, or any other cause, much less for any private use, be seized, embarked, arrested, forced by violence, or be any other way molested or injured; provided only, such arrests as are conformable to justice and equity, be not hereby prohibited, so be it they are made according to the ordinary course of law, and not granted upon private affection or

partiality, but are requisite for the administration of right and justice.

VI. In case any of the ships of either Confederate, whether of war or merchants, belonging to the subjects and people of either, be by occasion of tempest, pursuit of pirates, and enemies, or any other urgent necessity constrained to put into each other's havens, roads, or shores, they shall be received there with all kindness and humanity, and enjoy all friendly protection, and be permitted to refresh themselves, and procure at a reasonable price all things needful for their sustenance, reparation or use. Neither shall they be hindered from going out of the said ports or roads at their pleasure, without paying any customs or duties: provided they do nothing contrary to the laws, ordinances, and customs of the place, which the said ships shall enter into or abide in.

VII. In like manner, if any ship or ships, whether public.or private, belonging to either Confederate, their people and subjects, shall within any the coasts or dominions of the other stick upon the sands, or be wrecked (which God forbid) or suffer any, damage, all friendly help and relief shall be given them upon a competent reward. And whatever shall be remaining of the goods thrown overboard, or after shipwreck, or any other damage sustained, shall be kept in safe custody, and restored to the owners; so be it they, or such whom they shall appoint, do lay. claim to the ships and goods within a year's space from the time of the shipwreck, saving always the rights and customs of each nation.

VIII. In case the people and subjects on either part, whether they be merchants, factors, or servants, masters of ships, mariners, or such others, who travel and inhabit within the dominions of the other, or those who act on their behalf before any Court of Judicature, for recovery of their debts, or for other lawful occasions, shall stand in need of the magistrate's help; the same shall be readily, and according to the equity of their cause in friendly manner granted them, and justice shall be administered to them without long and unnecessary delays. Neither shall they be any way molested upon any pretence in the dispatch of their

affairs, in their journeying, bargaining, and receiving the price of their commodities; but that all love and friendship be extended towards them. And it shall be free for them, on both sides, in their passage to and again, in each other's coasts, ships, havens, and public places, to wear about them arms for their proper defence, so be it they give no just suspicion to the Governor or Magistrate of the place of any design against the public or private peace; but he especially who behaves and demeans himself soberly and inoffensively, shall be protected from all injury, violence, and molestation.

IX. The said Confederates, and all and singular Their people and subjects, may buy and export out of all the countries, Dominions, and Kingdoms of the other, all kind of armour and provision of war, and may safely and freely put in with their ships, and arrive at each other's ports, havens, and shores, and there stay, and thence depart, they carrying themselves peaceably, and conform ably to the laws and customs of the respective places, and not disturbing the freedom of commerce therein. In like manner the ships of war shall have free access to the ports of either, there to stay, come to anchor, and return without any injury or molestation, but upon these conditions:

1. That the fleet to be brought into the ports of either Confederate, shall not exceed the number of five or six ships, without notice first given thereof.

2. That without delay, the admiral or commander of the fleet and ships, shall shew his letters of safe-conduct to the Governor or Chief Magistrate of the castle, fort, city, or province, where they arrive, signifying the cause of their arrival, and declare to what end, and how long they resolve to continue there.

3. That in such case the ships keep a just distance from the castles and fortresses.

4. That not above forty mariners and soldiers, or so many as may give suspicion, come on shore together and in company.

5. That they give offence to none there, not so much as to their enemies, and, especially hinder or obstruct not the entrance and egress of any merchants' ships whatever.

6. That they go not thence as from their own road, and return again to the disturbance of the navigation of any nation.

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