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inquiring Prince is sent by one "Einsiedler" to his brother, and this brother sends him to an older brother, and he again to a still older one, who is described as steinalt. In Thorpe's "Yuletide Stories," p. 158, the youth, who is in quest of the Beautiful Palace, East of the Sun and North of the Earth, is sent by an old woman to her old sister, who refers her to a still older sister. Other parallels might be adduced from the folk-lore of Bohemia, Russia, Scandinavia, and Italy. The same incident is found in a later Indian work, the "Kathā Sarit Sāgara," in which will also be found a striking parallel to the Mahākapi Jātaka, p. 38. A man is hauled out of a pit by a monkey, and he tries to murder his benefactor while asleep. The good monkey nevertheless shows him, with due precautions against treachery, the way out of the wood. In the Katha Sarit Sāgara a lion asks a bear to throw down from a tree a sleeping prince, to whom he had promised protection. The bear refuses, but when the bear was asleep the prince made an effort to throw him down, but did not succeed, and was very justly punished with madness. This Jātaka is found in the Northern Buddhist collection, called "Jātaka-mālā," edited by Professor Kern.

Of man-eating ogres there is no lack in the volume under notice. The most interesting, perhaps, is the cannibal king, described in No. 537, who had been a yakkha in a former birth. But in the story of the ogre, on p. 13, there is an incident which may perhaps remind us of the story of Damon and Pytheas (or Phintias) versified by Schiller. A king has been captured by an ogre, and though perfectly willing to be devoured, he is troubled by the thought of an unfulfilled duty. He explains the matter in the following


"A promise once I to a brahmin made;

That promise still is due, that debt unpaid:
The vow fulfilled, to-morrow's dawn shall see
My honour saved, and my return to thee."

On the King's return to his palace, the Prince obtains permission to take his father's place. However, the ogre,

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after the manner of Indian ogres, is so much impressed by his courage and self-sacrifice, that he decides not to eat him. But the story does not end there. The Prince discovers that the ogre is not a real ogre by the following signs: "The eyes of ogres are red, and do not wink; they cast no shadow, and are free from all fear. This is no ogre; it is a man.” it is a man." (It may be observed that the notion, that the eyes of supernatural beings do not wink, is found in many Indian books, and in the "Ethiopica" of Heliodorus. That such beings do not cast a shadow is also a fancy common to India and Europe.) Eventually the Prince discovers that the supposed ogre is his uncle, his father's elder brother, who has taken to ogreish ways, owing to his having been stolen and nourished by an ogress, and a family reconciliation takes place. Among other well-known Indian stories, this volume contains the Ummadanti-Jātaka, three versions of which, all ending unhappily, are found in the Katha Sarit Sagara. For another version Mr. Francis refers us to the Jātaka-Mālā. knowledge of Northern and Southern Buddhism has enabled him to compare many cognate legends, and to throw light upon many Buddhist doctrines and practices, and also to explain many difficult expressions. Owing, no doubt, to the necessity of economizing space, which weighed so heavily on Professor Fausböll, he has had occasionally to be content with a brief reference to the works of other scholars. For instance, in speaking of the ChaddantaJātaka he remarks, "In the Journal Asiatique for 1895, tom. v., N.S., will be found a careful study by M. L. Feer, of the Chaddanta-Jātaka, based on a comparison of five different versions-two Pali, one Sanskrit, one Chinese." Many such notes, most valuable to the specialist, will be found scattered through this volume. It is, perhaps, worth while to remark that this Jātaka will be found represented in Cunningham's "Stupa of Bharhut," Plate XXVI. Plate XLVIII. in the same volume illustrates an incident described on p. 92 of Mr. Francis' translation, where a king,


finding a gray hair on his head, determines to embrace an ascetic life. This incident is a commonplace in Indian fiction, and is even found in a well-known Muhammadan tale.

To inquirers, who take interest in the manners and customs of ancient India, this volume will present many attractions. Jātaka, No. 520, contains an account of a king, who, after a fashion frequently followed in India, and not, perhaps, altogether unknown in Europe, roams about incognito with his chaplain, to hear what his subjects think of him. As a rule, in Indian stories, such royal listeners hear no good of themselves, as the Indian public in ancient times was wont to impute all evils to the sins of its rulers. Accordingly, King Pañcāla, the hero of the tale above referred to, hears himself blamed by an old woman because her two daughters have not been married; by an old man because a thorn runs into his foot; by a milkman because his cow kicks him and upsets him, milk and all; and by a frog in a dry tank, because he and his brethren are devoured by crows. The way in which these misfortunes are connected in the story with neglect of duty on the part of the Sovereign is certainly very ingenious. Among customs, generally considered to be opposed to Buddhism, mentioned in these tales is that of drinking intoxicating liquors. The women who, under the influence of strong drink, ventured into the presence of the Buddha, were sternly rebuked by him, and it is satisfactory to find that they were immediately "established in the fruition of the First Path."

The unbecoming conduct of these women leads the Master to give an account of the discovery of strong drink, which is very curious. According to him it was originally generated in the hollow of a tree, which was filled with water. "Round about it grew two myrobalan plants and a pepper shrub; and the ripe fruits from these, when they were cut down, fell into the hole. Not far from this tree was some self-sown paddy. The parrots would pluck the heads of rice and eat them, perched on this tree. And

while they were eating, the paddy and the husked rice fell there. So the water, fermenting through the sun's heat, assumed a blood-red colour. In the hot season flocks of birds, being thirsty, drank of it, and becoming intoxicated, fell down at the foot of the tree, and after sleeping awhile, flew away, chirping merrily. And the same thing happened in the case of wild dogs, monkeys, and other creatures." A forester observing this, imitated the birds and animals, and taught the bad practice to an ascetic. The next step was that the votaries of this new habit took to imitating themselves the process of nature, and manufactured intoxicating liquor largely. Eventually the King of Savatthi took to the practice of drinking spirits, and though he himself renounced it when admonished by the god Sakka, we read that "the drinking of strong drink gradually developed in India." It is clear that the Jātaka book describes ancient India as it actually was, and not as, according to Buddhist ideas, it ought to have been. The practice of indulging in animal food, which the offenders in this tale combined with their Bacchanalian practices, and which appears in a somewhat repulsive form on p. 121 in the case of a hermit. who eats the flesh of a monkey given to him by the inhabitants of a frontier village, may perhaps be excused by the example of the Buddha himself, whose death was, according to Professor Rhys Davids, due "to a meal of rice and young pork." The above instances are sufficient to show that the Jātaka Book gives a picture of many sides of Indian life in the centuries which preceded

our era.

The information which it furnishes with regard to the social organization of the Indian people in these ancient times has been made the subject of a special treatise by Dr. Fick, whose book is referred to by Mr. Francis.

It remains to state that Mr. Francis' volume is furnished with an "index of subject matters," and an "index of names and Pali words," which considerably enhance its value.-C. H. T.


2. The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate-Mesopotamia, Persia, and Central Asia, from the Moslem Conquest to the time of Timur (Cambridge Geographical Series), by G. LE STRANGE. This scholarly work is the sequel to the author's "Baghdâd under the Abbasid Caliphate," and the care and labour with which it is compiled merits all praise. Arabia is omitted from the present volume, though it was usually under the empire of the Abbasids, and the author hopes that some other scholar will finish his great work by describing the historical geography of that country, the African kingdoms, and the western Caliphate of Spain. Mr. Le Strange divides his subject into the provinces of 'Irak, or Babylonia, of which the capital was Baghdad, Jazirah which embraced Mosul, the Upper Euphrates; Rûm or Asia Minor including Trebezond, Aydin, Ephesus, and Smyrna, Adharbâyjan, Gilân, and the North-Western provinces, among which were Gurjistân or Georgia and Armenia, Jibâl or Irâk ‘Ajam, the Greek Media, Khuzistan, Fars, Kirmân, the Great Desert, and Makrân, Sijistan, Kûhistan, Kûmis, Tabaristan and Jurjân, Khurâsân, the Oxus, Khwârizm, Sughd and Samarkand, to which Bukhârâ was attached, and the Jaxartes provinces. This wide range is copiously illustrated with maps, and the author has not only contrived to digest most of what the early Moslem travellers have to say on the subject of the geography, topography, and trade routes of this enormous district, but also to make his book interesting in no small degree. The difficulty in doing this must have been very great, as he relies upon the writings of twenty-four Moslem writers of geography ranging from Ibn Khurdâdbih (A.D. 864) to Abu-l-Ghazi (A.D. 1604), and gives many quotations from their works, while at the same time pointing out that their statements may not always have been correct on every point. To Eastern historians this book will be very welcome



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