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Papers on Social Reform: being the Speeches and Writings of
K. Srinivasa Rau, dedicated (by permission) to Lord Ampthill,
Governor of Madras.-The Kathiawar Cases: Judgment of the
Privy Council.-India: Income and Expenditure, 1904-1905. —
The Present Condition of Egypt and the Soudan.-England and
the Congo.-Northern and Southern Nigeria.
India-Militia for Defence-Native Administration. - The Opium
Question in India.-Indian Budget, 1906-1907.-England, Tibet,
and China.-Agreement in Reference to Money Orders between
the General Post Office of England and the General Post Office
of the Dutch East Indies so far as it concerned the General
Public

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In the Desert, by L. March Phillipps.-The Letters of Warren Hastings
to his Wife. Transcribed in full from the Originals in the British
Museum. Introduced and Annotated by Sydney C. Grier.-Here
and There: Memories Indian and Other, by H. G. Keene, C.I.E.,
author of "“A Servant of John Company," etc.-A Fantasy of Far
Japan; or, Summer Dream Dialogues, by Baron Suyematsu.—
An English-Tamil Dictionary, by the Rev. G. U. Pope, M.A.,
D.D., Balliol College, Oxford.-The Shahnáma of Firdausi, by
A. G. Warner, M.A., and E. Warner, B. A. Vol. I.-At the
Gates of the East: a Book of Travel among Historic Wonderlands,
by Lieutenant-Colonel J. P. Barry, A. B., M.B., Indian Medical
Service. With thirty-three illustrations.-Lord Curzon in India:
being a Selection from his Speeches as Viceroy and Governor-
General of India, 1899-1905, with a Portrait, Explanatory Notes,
and Index. With Introduction by Sir Thomas Kaleigh, K. C.S.I.
-The History of Japan, together with a Description of the
Kingdom of Siam, 1690-1692, by Engelbert Kæmpfer, M.D.
Translated by J. G. Scheuchzer, F.R.S. Vols. I.-III.-Life of
Lieutenant-General the Honourable Sir Andrew Clarke, G.C. M.G.,
C. B., C.I.E., edited by Colonel R. H. Vetch, C. B.
With a
Preface by Colonel Sir G. S. Clarke, K.C.M.G., F.R.S., R.E.
With illustrations and maps.-Western Culture in Eastern Lands:
a comparison of the methods adopted by England and Russia in
the Middle East, 1906, by Arminius Vambéry, C.V.O. 410 pp.,
12s. net.—Tibet and the Tibetans, by the Rev. Graham Sandberg.
-Dictionary of Indian Biography, by C. E. Buckland, C.I.E.—
Greece, from the coming of the Hellenes to 14 A.D., by E. S.
Shuckburgh, Litt. D., Lecturer in Ancient History, University
College, London

India under Royal Eyes, by H. F. Prevost Battersby, author of "In
the Web of War," "The Plague of the Heart," etc.-A Biblio-
graphy of the Sanskrit Drama, with an Introductory Sketch of the
Dramatic Literature of India, by Montgomery Schuyler, JR. A.M.,
Consul-General of the United States to Siam.-Hindustani for
Every Day, by Colonel W. R. M. Holroyd, M. R.A.S., Fellow of
Calcutta University, and of the University of the Punjab, and
Director of Public Instruction, Punjab.-Persia by a Persian, being
Personal Experiences of Manners, Customs, Habits, Religious and
Social Life in Persia, by Rev. Isaac Adams, M.D., author of
“Darkness and Daybreak"; founder of the Nestorian Colony in
Canada. Everyday Life among the Head-Hunters, and other
Experiences from East to West, by Dorothy Cator. With thirty-
four illustrations from photographs.--Rifle and Romance in the
Indian Jungle: a Record of Thirteen Years, by Captain A. J. R.
Glasfurd, of the Indian Army. With numerous illustrations by the

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author and from photographs.-The Achehnese, by Dr. C. Snonck
Hurgronje. Translated by the late A. W. S. O'Sullivan, Assistant
Colonial Secretary, Straits Settlements. With an Index by R. J.
Wilkinson. 2 vols. Things Indian: being discursive notes on
various subjects connected with India, by William Crooke, of the
Bengal Civil Service (retired). Pp. 544.-Empires and Emperors
of Russia, China, Korea, and Japan, by Count Vay de Vaya and
Luskod.-Sadi's Scroll of Wisdom, with Introduction, by Arthur
N. Wollaston, C.I.E.-A History of Assam, by E. A. Gait,
Indian Civil Service .

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SUMMARY OF EVENTS IN ASIA, AFRICA, AND THE COLONIES

PAGES

398-420 206, 421

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THE IMPERIAL

AND

Asiatic Quarterly Review,

AND ORIENTAL AND COLONIAL RECORD.

JULY, 1906.

AN INDIAN MILITIA FOR INDIA'S
DEFENCE.*

BY S. S. THORBURN, I.C.S. (RETIRED).

THOUGH RUSSOphobia dates back to the beginning of the last century, costly action to strengthen our position in Northern India against attack by Russia only began in 1838, when for the first time we invaded Afghanistan. Soon afterwards, under the same obsession, we conquered and annexed Sindh (1842) and the Punjab (1849), thus extending our dominion to the line of the Indus. There, for the next twenty-five years, we sat still in fancied security, closing our eyes to Russia's progress towards us. We woke up in 1877-78 to find her in military possession of Central Asia as far south as the Oxus, and her envoy in Kabul negotiating a treaty with the Amir. To convince the latter that England, not Russia, was his friend, we drove him from his country, and after two years of warfare and vicissitude installed as his successor a friendly and capable member of his family, engaging that so long as he held no intercourse with the rival Power, and left the management of all his foreign affairs to us, we should pay him annually a fixed subsidy, and guarantee the integrity of his kingdom.

Though at the time the territories comprising it were * The discussion on this paper will appear in the report of the Proceedings of the East India Association in our next issue.

THIRD SERIES.

VOL. XXII.

A

known and loosely described, the exact boundaries had nowhere been clearly ascertained and defined; hence, before the engagement could become effective, the delimitation of Afghanistan with Russia, Persia, and India was necessary. Work in the field was soon after begun, and, in spite of delays, difficulties, and the Panjdeh crisis in 1885, has been slowly and thoroughly carried through, with the result that all the States and tribes, parties to the operations, have exact knowledge of their common frontiers and the political relations subsisting between them. In each case the actual boundary-lines, marked by cairns of stones or mounds of soil, and the lands adjacent thereto, have been mapped in a way which would compare favourably with the Ordnance Survey sheets of English counties.

In prosecuting the work, once preliminaries were settled by negotiations, Russia was slow, determined, but fairly reasonable, and Persia evasive and obstructive. Our greatest troubles occurred in surveying and fixing the lines between the eastern front of Afghanistan and the Pathan tribes occupying the mountain ranges immediately west of the valley of the Indus. However, after twenty years of persistence, and the expenditure of many lives and much treasure, the whole series of operations-with one small exception in Mohmand territory-has at last been accomplished, and India has now a triple line of defence against aggression by Russia-viz., (1) Afghanistan, a buffer State; (2) the belt of highlands between our actual and Afghan frontiers, held by a number of independent Pathan tribes within our exclusive sphere of influence, and extending for 500 miles from the Pamirs to Biluchistan; and (3) our actual frontier, mostly acquired in 1849, loosely described as the valley of the Indus.

The strength of our most advanced and weakest line. depends on the will and ability of the two responsible powers the Amir of Afghanistan and the British Cabinet of the day-to fulfil their respective obligations. Whether or no we should have the power-assuming the will—to do

our duty would depend upon the number of soldiers we should be able to put in the fighting line and maintain there, and the amount of loss we could inflict upon Russia by the blockade of her ports and destruction of her sea-borne commerce. The strength of our second line, the western hinterlands of the Pathan highlanders just beyond our actual frontier, is problematical; it corresponds with the "scientific frontier" of the late Lord Lytton, and has some excellent defensive positions, which it would be difficult to turn or take if the local tribes were with us-an "if" upon which no reliance will ever be possible, depending as it would upon the success of our arms in the field and the amount of well-paid service which we should give the tribesmen.

The strength of the third line, that actually held by us, is enormous, the eastern ends of the only two present-day army approaches to India, those via the Khyber on the north and Kandahar and Biluchistan on the south, being strongly fortified and garrisoned, the former at Peshawar and Rawal Pindi, the latter at Quetta. In addition, all the secondary positions of strategic value throughout the Indus valley are interconnected by railways, which are linked up with the main lines of the Indian peninsula. So satisfactory is this, our ultimate line of defence—a glacis of roadless mountains and unproductive wilds for a depth of 400 miles beyond it, and behind it all the resources of the Indian Empire ready to hand—that if we had a sufficient number of reliable troops to hold it, and were not bound by treaty to defend Afghanistan, the two more advanced lines might be wholly disregarded, and we might await in perfect security the slow and exhausting nearer approach of Russia towards the Indus.

The crux of the problem of defence was, is, and long will continue to be, that contained in the italicized words in the last sentence. Until the middle of the seventies, the advocates of inaction, with whom the Liberals identified themselves, had reason in their contention that the forward

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