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kingdom of the beast; in which the subjects of the first resurrection appear to me to be situated; and in which also the two witnesses prophesy in sackcloth during the 1260 years, and are slain at the end of that time. (2) I conceive also, from chap. xi. 7, that the beast is to ascend out of the bottomless pit, when the two witnesses are to be slain; and the devil is described as being loosed from the same place at the end of the Millennial period (chap. xx. 3,7). And (3) the remarkable event of the resurrection of the two witnesses, and their ascent up to heaven in sight of their enemies (chap. xi. 11, 12), may synchronize and be connected with the second resurrection, if that is the same as the spiritual resurrection of the whole house of Israel, and of a vast multitude of Gentiles with them. The two witnesses after this no longer prophesy in sackcloth, but ascend up to heaven, which seems to indicate the triumphant progress of the Gospel. So in the account given of the period which follows the second resurrection (chap. xx. 7-10), there is no expression which indicates any thing like the suffering or martyrdom which, as already observed, appear to me to be implied, with respect to the subjects of the first resurrection. The last effort, however powerful and universal, against the subjects of the second resurrection, instead of being attended with success, will be frustrated in a most signal manner, by some immediate judgments of God, in agreement with the prophecy concerning Gog, Ezek. xxxviii. 18-23, and xxxix. 1-7. [Note II.] The reader will notice, in connection with this subject, that the woman (that is, the church) is represented as only remaining in the wilderness during the 1260 days (chap. xii. 6, 14), which is evidently the same as the
[II.] I conceive that the expression compassed about (exvxλwear, compare Luke xxi. 20) the camp of the saints and the beloved city (ver. 9), implies, that the effort of the nations against the church of Christ will be very universal and powerful, and will menace her with great difficulty and danger, but does not foretell their being able to inflict, as heretofore, any real sufferings upon her. Whether the expression, fire came down from God out of heaven, and devoured them, will be fulfilled literally or not, can only be determined by the event. We find the same judgment by fire intimated respecting Gog and Magog (Ezek. xxxviii. 22), and a similar mode of expression is used in a figurative sense in this book, both concerning the two witnesses (chap. xi. 5), and concerning the second beast (chap. xiii. 13).
period during which the two witnesses prophesy in sackcloth (chap. xi. 3). This seems to indicate that the church will come forth triumphantly from her wilderness state at the end of that time; and this also appears to me to harmo1 nize with the view which I have suggested of the second resurrection, as taking place at the end of the millennial period, In agreement also with this view, the sounding of the seventh angel (chap. xii. 15), would take place after the second resurrection. It appears to follow immediately after the resurrection and ascent of the two witnesses. If, therefore, these coincide with the second resurrection in chap. xx., the event described as the kingdoms of this world becoming the kingdoms of our Lord and of his Christ (chap. xi. 15), may refer to that vast ingathering, not only of the whole house of Israel, but of the fulness of the Gentiles also into the fold of Christ, which, as I conceive, will be the effect of the second resurrection. The other events which are to take place under that trumpet (ver. 18), namely, the anger of the nations, the coming of God's wrath, and the time of the dead that they should be judged, may be the same as the gathering together of the nations under the awful influence of Satan, the execution of God's wrath upon them by the fire from heaven, and the subsequent judgment of the dead, which are foretold in chap. xx. 7—15.
Having suggested these considerations as to the coincidence of the termination of the 1260 years with that of the millennial period, I venture to call the reader's attention to the period, or periods, noticed in Daniel as subsequent to the 1260 years. I need not remind him; that the time, times, and an half, mentioned in Dan. xii. 7, are considered to be the same as the 1260 years. In addition, however, to this period, we have two subsequent ones, of thirty and forty-five years, brought before us in vers. 11 and 12 of that chapter. Supposing the above coincidence to be true, may not this whole period of seventy-five years be the same with that described in Rev. xx. 7-10, as subsequent to the thousand years, although I do not pretend to offer any conjecture as to the two distinct periods into which the whole is divided in the prophecy of Daniel?
I would, lastly, call the reader's attention to the pouring out of the seven vials (Rev. xv. and xvi.) As the wrath
of God is to be filled up (or finished, or ended, ɛɛλeo0n) by their being poured out (xv. 1), so it appears to me that neither the execution of the wrath of God upon the beast, foretold in chapter xix. 19-21, nor that upon the nations, foretold in chapter xx. 8, 9, can be subsequent to the pouring out of the vials. With this conviction I venture to suggest, whether these judgments may not coincide with and be included among the vials. [Note KK.]
The first four vials appear to be poured out upon the countries which are in the kingdom of the beast, and the fifth upon what is described as his seat or throne. May not these harmonize with the judgments of which a more detailed account is given in chapters xvii. and xviii.? The sixth vial is to be poured out upon the great river Euphrates, and the water thereof is to be dried up, that the way of the kings of the east may be prepared (chap. xvi. 12). Mede, Newton, Gill, &c. consider that the former part of this may refer to the Turkish empire, the great seat of the Mohammedan delusion; and the preparing the way of the kings of the east, to the
[KK.] This consideration appears to me to favour the observations which I have made as to the millennial period not being subsequent to the events foretold in ch. xix. As the judgment in ch. xix. is the last executed upon the kingdom of the beast, and that in ch. xx. the last executed upon the nations, they cannot, I conceive, be either of them subsequent to the pouring out of the vials, in which the wrath of God is ended or finished, but must be included among them. If, however, the millennial period is subsequent to the events in the end of ch. xix., the judgment executed upon the nations in ch. xx. 9 must be more than a thousand years after that executed upon the beast, ch. xix. 19-21; and consequently, if I am correct in supposing these judgments to be included among the vials, there would be more than a thousand years' interval between either the fifth and sixth, or between the sixth and seventh vials. But as the angels are represented as coming out of the temple together, and receiving both the vials themselves and the command concerning the pouring of them out at one and the same time (xv. 6, 7; xvi. 1), the impression produced in my mind is, that the seven vials will be poured out either at one and the same time, or in rapid succession. The remarkable declaration, also, Behold, I come as a thief, which is made between the sixth and seventh vials (xvi. 15), appears to me to imply, that the interval between these will be but short. If, therefore, these vials include both the judgment upon the beast, foretold xix. 19, and that upon the nations, xx. 9, there cannot, I conceive, be any such long interval between them as a thousand years: and, consequently, the millennial period cannot be after the judgment upon the
conversion and return of the Jews to their own land. If their view be correct, the latter event is closely connected with the resurrection of the whole house of Israel, foretold in Ezekiel; and consequently, as I conceive, with the second resurrection, noticed in Rev. xx. 5. After the pouring out of the sixth vial we read (chap. xvi. 13, 14) : "And I saw three unclean spirits like frogs come out of the mouth of the dragon, and out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the mouth of the false prophet; for they are the spirits of devils, working miracles, which go forth unto the kings of the earth, and of the whole world, to gather them to the battle of that great day of God Almighty." Let me then ask, whether this may not include the event described, chap. xx. 7, 8, as the devil being loosed and going forth to deceive the nations, which are in the four quarters of the earth, Gog and Magog, to gather them together to battle, whose number is as the sand of the sea? Upon this point I would suggest the following considerations. First, There seems to me some degree of coincidence between the eastern and western, the Mohammedan and Popish, antichrist. They appear to
have arisen about the same time; and I cannot but conceive, from the account of the pouring out of the vials, that the final judgments upon each will be executed about the same time. The xviith and xviiith chapters appear to foretell the final judgments upon the great whore, mystical Babylon, by which, probably, is intimated the overthrow of the dominion of Popery, as such, and in its present form. I conceive, howver, from chap. xix. 19-21, that the beast will still continue to exist, though under some other form ; and that the final conflict foretold there will take place with him under this new form. The same thing appears to me intimated in the prophecy concerning the pouring out of the vials. The fifth, which is poured out upon the seat of the beast would seem to complete the judgments which had been carried on by the preceding four. The expressions, however, in verse 13, I saw three unclean spirits like frogs come out of the mouth of the dragon, and out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the mouth of the false prophet, appear to intimate that the
beast will still continue to exist; but that some new deception or error will break forth in his kingdom, as intimated by an unclean spirit coming forth out of his mouth; and that the subjects of his kingdom will take part in the battle of Armageddon. Hence it appears to me that the last conflict with the beast, foretold in chap. xix. 19-21, may be carried on after the pouring out of the sixth vial, foretold in chap. xv. 13, has taken place, and may form, as it were, a part of the great battle of Armageddon, to be carried on in the kingdom of the beast, the Western Antichrist; while chap. xx. 7-10 may chiefly foretell a coincident conflict carried on in the kingdoms of the Eastern Antichrist, now under the Mohammedan delusion. Second, The spirits of devils are described as gathering together the kings to battle (chap. xvi. 14); so the devil is described as gathering the nations to battle (chap. xx. 8). Third, The double extent of description of those who are gathered together in xvi. 14—namely, the earth and the whole world-seems to me to be intended to include both the kingdom of the beast, and the countries under the dominion of the Mohammedan delusion (chap. x. 3), and to point out that there will be a synchronous conflict carried on in those countries. Fourth, The variety and extent of the sources whence the spirits go forth at one and the same time— namely, out of the mouth of the dragon, and out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the mouth of the false prophet (chap. xvi. 14)-appear to me to include the Mohammedan delusion, as well as that of the beast, both of which have been previously noticed in the Book of Revelation. Hence, also, I conclude that the battle of the great day of God Almighty, which results from the three unclean spirits, the spirits of devils, going forth from their various sources (chap. xvi. 14), will include both the last conflict in the kingdom of the beast, foretold in chap. xix. 19, and that with the nations, in chap. xx. 9. All this, however, I merely offer by way of suggestion for the reader's consideration.
With these observations I would bring this treatise to a conclusion; sincerely praying that any error into which I may have been unintentionally led, may be discovered; and that any observations in it which are