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5. Many Substantives are used only in the Plural.


les environs, the neighborhood.

les funérailles, the funeral.

6. Some words have a different meaning in the Singular and Plural.



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deux, two; trois, three; vu, seen.


On the General Rule and Exception 1.

3. Ils

1. Nous avons deux chiens. 2. Vous avez trois chats. ont les lettres. 4. Les fils ont les lettres. 5. Ont-elles une fleur? Elles ont deux fleurs. 6. Avez-vous vu les palais? Oui, j'ai vu les palais. 7. L'enfant a-t-il une rose? L'enfant a deux roses. 8. Les enfants ont-ils une pomme? Les enfants ont trois pommes. 9. L'homme a deux bras. 10. L'oncle a deux jardins. 11. Le père a-t-il un chien? Oui, il a trois chiens. 12. La mère^a-t^-elle^un canif? Oui, elle a trois canifs.

1. He has three cats. 2. She has three dogs. 3. You have the letter. 4. The children have the letters. 5. The son has two dogs. 6. The sons have three dogs. 7. Have you seen the flowers? Yes, I have seen the flowers. 8. Have the children seen the palaces? The children have seen the palaces. 9. Have the sons seen the palaces? The sons have seen three palaces. 10. Have you seen the gardens? Yes, I have seen three gardens. 11. Have you a penknife? Yes, I have two penknives. 12. Has the father a cat? Yes, he has two cats and three dogs.

quatre, four; cinq, five; aussi, also.


1. La reine a les bijoux. 2. Le général^a trois chevaux. 3. Avez-vous vu les deux généraux? 4. Les enfants ont les cailloux. 5. Ont-ils aussi les joujoux? Oui, ils ont aussi les joujoux. 6. J'ai trois noix, quatre pommes et cinq cerises. 7. L'homme a deux yeux. 8. Avez-vous vu les feux? Oui, j'ai vu les feux. 9. Avez-vous vu les funérailles? 10. J'ai vu les palais et les châteaux. 11. L'oncle a quatre chevaux. 12. Avezvous vu les lunettes? Oui, j'ai vu les lunettes.

1. The aunt has the jewels. 2. The uncle has five horses. 3. The two generals have four horses. 4. Have you seen the spectacles? 5. Have the children the nuts? Yes, they have four nuts and five apples. 6. Have you seen the hats? 7. The queen

has three palaces and four country-houses. 8. Have the children seen the fires? 9. Have you seen the playthings? Yes, I have seen the playthings. 10. The child has two eyes. 11. Has the queen the jewels? 12. I have seen the funeral.


2. As-tu vu les

1. Ai-je les couteaux? Oui, j'ai les couteaux. chameaux? Oui, j'ai vu les chameaux et les chevaux.* 3. Avezvous aussi vu les châteaux? J'ai vu les châteaux^et les palais. 4. Avez-vous les bijoux? La tante a les bijoux et les coraux. 5. Les enfants ont-ils les habits ou les chapeaux? Les enfants ont les habits et les chapeaux. 6. Ont-ils vu les feux? Oui, ils ont vu les feux. 7. La tante a-t-elle les joujoux? Non, les enfants ont les joujoux. 8. Avez-vous les tableaux? Oui, j'ai les tableaux.

1. Has he the knives? Yes, he has the knives. 2. Has the child seen the camels? Yes, he has seen the camels. 3. Have the children seen also the country-houses? Yes, they have seen the country-houses and the palaces. 4. Have you also seen the corals? Yes, I have seen the corals and the jewels. 5. Have they also the hats? Yes, they have the hats and the coats. 6. Have the children seen the fires? Yes, they have seen the fires. 7. Have you the playthings? No, the child has the playthings. 8. Has the uncle seen the pictures? Yes, he has seen the pictures.

2. FORMATION OF THE GENITIVE (Génitif). · The preposition of is expressed in French by de, which is thus used before the articles.

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*The final x is sounded like z when followed by a word beginning with a


où, where? est, is; sont, are.


1. J'ai vu la maison du voisin. 2. J'ai vu la maison de la voisine. 3. Il a vu la porte des voisins. 4. Elle a vu la porte des voisines. 5. Nous avons vu la porte de la maison. 6. Vous avez vu les portes des maisons. 7. Ils ont vu le père de l'enfant. 8. Elles ont vu la mère des enfants. 9, Avez-vous vu les livres de l'enfant? 10. Où est l'ami du père? 11. Où sont les amiés de la mère?

1. We have seen the books of the friend (masc.). 2. Have you seen the books of the friend? (fem.) 3. Where is the door of the house? 4. Where are the doors of the houses? 5. Where is the house of the neighbor? (masc.) 6. Where are the houses of the neighbors? (fem.) 7. Where is the uncle of the child? 8. Where is the aunt of the children? 9. Have you seen the friend (masc.) of the uncle? 10. Have you seen the friend (fem.) of the aunt? 11. He has seen the horse of the general. 12. You have seen the horses of the generals.


The preposition to is expressed in French by à, which is thus used before the articles:

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Au, a contraction of à le, is used before a consonant; à l' before a vowel and h mute.

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Aux is a contraction

aux pères,
aux amis,
aux mères,
aux amies,


to the fathers. to the friends. to the mothers.

to the friends (fem.).

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Est, is, and sont, are, when used with à and a substantive or pronoun signify generally belongs and belong: as,

le livre est à mon père, the book belongs to my father.



2. A qui est la canne? 3. La

1. Le chapeau est à mon frère. canne est à mon cousin. 4. Les livres sont aux enfants. 5. A qui sont les chevaux? 6. Les chevaux sont aux généraux. 7. Je donne la rose à ma sœur. 8. Donnez-vous la poire à ma tante? 9. Oui, je donne la poire à ma tante. 10. Le chien est à mon ami. 11. Les chiens sont aux généraux. 12. Le jardin est aux frères et aux sœurs.

1. The hat belongs to my father. 2. To whom does the hat belong? 3. The hats belong to my brothers. 4. The cane belongs to my brother. 5. To whom do the canes belong? 6. The canes belong to my cousins. 7. I give the book to the child. 8. Do you give the books to the children? 9. Do you give the roses to my sister? Yes, I give the roses to my sisters. 10. Do you give the garden to the brothers and the sisters? 11. I give the dogs to my friends.

voici, here is, here are.


1. Ai-je le livre du cousin? Vous avez le livre du cousin. 2. Avez-vous le portrait de la tante? Oui, j'ai le portrait de la tante. 3. A-t-il vu le jardin du roi? Non, il a vu le château du roi. 4. Qui a les ciseaux de ma sœur? Voici les ciseaux de votre sœur. 5. À qui sont les noix? Elles sont à l'enfant. 6. A qui sont les poires? Elles sont aux enfants du voisin. 7. À qui est le jardin? Il est au roi et à la reine. 8. Avez-vous vu le chien de l'oncle? Voilà le chien de l'oncle.

1. Have you the books of the neighbor? Yes, I have the books of the neighbor. 2. Have you the likeness of the sister? Yes, I have the likeness of the sister. 3. Has she seen the gardens of the king? No, she has seen the country-houses of the king. 4. Who has the scissors of my aunt? Here are the scissors of my aunt. 5. To whom do the nuts belong? They belong to my sister. 6. To whom do the pears belong? They belong to my cousin. 7. To whom do the gardens belong? They belong to the king and to the queen. 8. To whom do the dogs belong? They belong to the generals.

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2. A noun feminine, beginning with a consonant.

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3. A noun masculine or feminine, beginning with a

vowel or h mute.

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V. THE PARTITIVE ARTICLE (l'Article partitif). The Partitive Article, some, is the same as the Genitive of the Definite Article, being compounded of de and the Article:

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1. The Partitive Article is always used in French to express the part of a thing, though it is often omitted in English: as,

j'ai du pain et de la viande, I have some bread and some meat, or I have bread and meat;

meaning, "I have a part of the bread and of the meat."


1. Il a du pain et de la viande. 2. Avez-vous des enfants, madame? Oui, j'ai trois enfants, un fils et deux filles. 3. Mon

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