Images de page

1. For whom is this beautiful present? It is for my sister Mary. 2. For how long have you hired that house? I have hired it for six months. 3. When did your sister set out? She set out yesterday for London. 4. Where does your uncle live? He lives on the bank of the Seine, opposite Paris. 5. Where is she going so quick? She is going to (the house of) her aunt. 6. When did she come? She came in after you. 7. When did he arrive? Yesterday evening, about (say towards) eight o'clock, before sunset. 8. Who has pushed the child? The boys have pushed him against the wall. 9. Is your father angry? Yes, Sir, he is angry with (say, against) his servant. 10. Is your nephew grateful towards his benefactor? He is, and will be always, all his life. 11. Has your sister her umbrella? There it is, she has it in her hand. 12. Will your uncle set out to-morrow? According to circumstances.


Conjunctions serve to join words and sentences together. They are divided into Simple Conjunctions, that is, composed of a single word: as, et, and, ou, or; and Compound Conjunctions, that is, composed of several words: as, à moins que, unless.

[blocks in formation]

1. Le père écrit les lettres, et le fils les copie. 2. Travaillez ou jouez. 3. Je crois qu'il fera beau temps demain. 4. On l'attendit, mais en vain. 5. Le professeur est content de ses écoliers quand ils sont appliqués; mais s'ils sont paresseux, il n'en est pas content. 6.

Mademoiselle Mathilde est jolie; cependant elle ne me plaît pas. 7. Puisque vous êtes ici, je vous donnerai une leçon de musique. 8. Nous ne nous promènerons pas aujourd'hui, car il pleut. 9. Ce petit garçon serait très-heureux s'il avait quelques bons livres. 10. Demandez-lui s'il a assez d'argent. 11. Frédéric est pauvre, néanmoins il est toujours habillé proprement. 12. Quand on travaille, on gagne de l'argent.

1. The mother writes the letters and the daughter copies them. 2. She works or plays. 3. I believe that it will be wet (say, will make bad weather) to-morrow. 4. He waited for you, but in vain. 5. If the scholars are idle, the master is not content with them. 6. Your niece is pretty; however, she does not please us. 7. Since you are here, the professor will give you a music lesson. 8. My uncle will not take a walk to-day, for he is ill. 9. This little girl would be very happy if she had some good books. 10. Ask the girl if she has enough money. 11. The boys are poor, nevertheless they are always dressed neatly. 12. When the pupils are diligent, they work and gain money.

Compound Conjunctions.


1. Tout le monde l'aime, parce qu'il a un bon cœur. 2. Un voleur a volé ma montre pendant que j'étais absent. 3. Ce jeune homme travaille tandis que son frère joue toujours. 4. Tant que vous serez ici, vous demeurerez chez moi. 5. Je vous montrerai la lettre aussitôt que je l'aurai lue. 6. Mes sœurs étaient absentes; c'est pourquoi on ne les a pas invitées. 7. Avant quet vous quittiez notre ville, il faut que vous dîniez avec nous. 8. Approchez pour quet je vous montre cela. 9. Quoiquet l'ambition soit un vice, elle est quelquefois la cause de grands exploits. 10. Il n'ira pas à moins quet vous ne lui demandiez.

† Avant que, pour que, quoique, à moins que, govern the subjunctive mood: à moins que requires ne with the subjunctive mood which it governs.

1. Every one (say, all the world) loved him, because he had a good heart. 2. The robbers robbed our watches while we were absent. 3. Those young men worked while our brothers were playing. 4. As long as she is (say, will be) here, she will stop with us. 5. We will show you the letter immediately we have read it. 6. My brothers were absent; it is the reason why my aunt did not invite them. 7. Before your sisters leave (subj.) our town, they must dine (say, it is necessary that they dine) with us. 8. Draw near, in order that we may show this present. 9. I will not go, unless you ask me. 10. We will not go, unless you ask us.

[blocks in formation]


The Tenses are divided into Primitive and Derivative. The Primitive Tenses are:

[merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small]

I. From the INFINITIVE are formed two tenses:

1. The Future, by adding -ai: as j'aimer-ai from aimer.

2. The Conditional, by adding -ais: as j'aimer-ais from aimer.

II. From the PRESENT PARTICIPLE are formed three tenses:

1. The three persons plural of the Present Indicative, by changing ant into ons, ez, ent: as aim-ons, aim-ez, aim-ent, from aim-ant.

2. The Imperfect Indicative, by changing -ant into -ais as j'aim-ais from aim-ant.

3. The Present Subjunctive, by changing -ant of the Participle into e as que j'aim-e from aim-ant.

III. From the PAST PARTICIPLE are formed all compound tenses by means of the auxiliary verb avoir, or être : as j'ai aimé, j'avais aimé; je suis venu, j'étais venu.

IV. From the PRESENT INDICATIVE the Imperative is formed by dropping the Personal Pronoun: as, aime.

V. From the PAST DEFINITE is formed the Imperfect Subjunctive, by changing the termination into -asse for the first conjugation; into -isse for the second and fourth conjugations; and into usse for the third and sometimes also for the second and fourth conjugations: as,

[merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small]


The irregularity in the Verbs is chiefly confined to the Primitive Tenses. The Derivative Tenses are for the most part regular.

In the following list of Irregular Verbs the first person only is given, when the other persons are regular.


1. Envoyer, to send.

Inf. envoyer. Part. prés. envoyant.

Part. passé, envoyé.

Prés. j'envoie; nous envoyons, vous envoyez, ils envoient.

Prés. du Subj. que j'envoie, que vous envoyiez.

Imparf. j'envoyais, nous envoyions, vous envoyiez.

Passé def. j'envoyai.

Imparf. du Subj. que j'envoyasse.

Fut. j'enverrai, tu enverras, etc.

Cond. j'enverrais, tu enverrais, etc.

Impér. envoie, envoyons, envoyez.

[blocks in formation]

Part. passé, allé.

Prés. je vais, tu vas, il va; nous allons, vous allez, ils vont.

Imparf. j'allais, tu allais, il allait, etc.

Passe def. j'allai, tu allas, il alla; nous allâmes, vous allâtes, ils allèrent.

Fut. j'irai, tu iras, il ira; nous irons, vous irez, ils iront.

Cond. j'irais, tu irais, etc.

Passe indéf. je suis allé.

Imper. va (vas-y, go thither); allons, allez.

Pres. du Subj. que j'aille, que tu ailles, qu'il aille, que nous allions,

que vous alliez, qu'ils aillent.

Imparf. du Subj. que j'allasse, que tu allasses, etc.

3. S'en aller, to go away.

Observe that en

This Reflective Verb, on account of its frequent use and its difficulty, must be conjugated fully. is never separated from the Pronoun.

[blocks in formation]

m'en vais-je ?

ne m'en vais-je pas?

je m'en allais, tu t'en allais,

il s'en allait,

am I going away? | t'en vas-tu? etc. art thou going

[blocks in formation]

away? etc.

art thou not going away?

we were going

away. you were going


they were going


« PrécédentContinuer »