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1. For whom is this beautiful present ? It is for my sister Mary. 2. For how long have you hired that house? I have hired it for six months. 3. When did your sister set out? She set out yesterday for London. 4. Where does your uncle live? He lives on the bank of the Seine, opposite Paris. 5. Where is she going so quick? She is going to (the house of) her aunt. 6. When did she come? She came in after you. 7. When did he arrive? Yesterday evening, about (say towards) eight o'clock, before sunset. 8. Who has pushed the child ? The boys have pushed him against the wall. 9. Is your father angry? Yes, Sir, he is angry with (say, against) his servant. 10. Is your nephew grateful towards his benefactor ? He is, and will be always, all his life. 11. Has your sister her umbrella ? There it is, she has it in her hand. 12. Will your uncle set out to-morrow? According to circumstances.

XXVII.—CONJUNCTIONS (Conjonctions). Conjunctions serve to join words and sentences together. They are divided into Simple Conjunctions, that is, composed of a single word: as, et, and, ou, or; and Compound Conjunctions, that is, composed of several words : as, à moins que, unless.

The following are the chief Simple Conjunctions : et, and.

que,

that. ou,

quand, soit (que), whether.

quand (même),

though. ni,

pourtant, mais, but.

cependant, >yet, however. quoique, though.

toutefois, car, because, for.

si,

if. puisque, since.

si (non), or,

savoir,

namely. pourquoi, wherefore.

comme, lorsque, when.

donc,

then, therefore.

or.

nor.

or else.

now.

as.

EXERCISE XL.

Simple Conjunctions.

A.

1. Le père écrit les lettres, et le fils les copie. 2. Travaillez ou jouez. 3. Je crois qu'il fera beau temps demain. 4. On l'attendit, mais en vain. 5. Le professeur est content de ses écoliers quand ils sont appliqués; mais s'ils sont paresseux, il n'en est pas content. 6. Mademoiselle Mathilde est jolie; cependant elle ne me plaît pas. 7. Puisque vous êtes ici, je vous donnerai une leçon de musique. 8. Nous ne nous promènerons pas aujourd'hui, car il pleut. 9. Ce petit garçon serait très-heureux s'il avait quelques bons livres. 10. Demandez-lui s'il a assez d'argent. 11. Frédéric est pauvre, néanmoins il est toujours habillé proprement. 12. Quand on travaille, on gagne de l'argent.

1. The mother writes the letters and the daughter copies them. 2. She works or plays. 3. I believe that it will be wet (say, will make bad weather) to-morrow. 4. He waited for you, but in vain. 5. If the scholars are idle, the master is not content with them. 6. Your niece is pretty; however, she does not please us.

7. Since you are here, the professor will give you a music lesson. 8. My uncle will not take a walk to-day, for he is ill. 9. This little girl would be very happy if she had some good books. 10. Ask the girl if she has enough money. 11. The boys are poor, nevertheless they are always dressed neatly. 12. When the pupils are diligent, they work and gain money.

Compound Conjunctions.

B.

1. Tout le monde l'aime, parce qu'il a un bon cœur. 2. Un voleur a volé ma montre pendant que j'étais absent. 3. Ce jeune homme travaille tandis que son frère joue toujours. 4. Tant que vous serez ici, vous demeurerez chez moi. 5. Je vous montrerai la lettre aussitôt que je l'aurai lue. 6. Mes seurs étaient absentes; c'est pourquoi on ne les a pas invitées. 7. Avant que t vous quittiez notre ville, il faut que vous dîniez avec nous. 8. Approchez pour que † je vous montre cela. 9. Quoiquet l'ambition soit un vice, elle est quelquefois la cause de grands exploits. 10. Il n'ira pas à moins que † vous ne lui demandiez.

† Avant que, pour que, quoique, à moins que, govern the subjunctive mood : à moins que requires ne with the subjunctive mood which it governs.

1. Every one (say, all the world) loved him, because he had a good heart. 2. The robbers robbed our watches while we were absent. 3. Those young men worked while our brothers were playing. 4. As long as she is (say, will be) here, she will stop with us. 5. We will show you the letter immediately we have read it. 6. My brothers were absent; it is the reason why my aunt did not invite them. 7. Before your sisters leave (subj.) our town, they must dine (say, it is necessary that they dine) with us. 8. Draw near, in order that we may show this present. 9. I will not go, unless you ask me. 10. We will not go, unless you ask us.

XXVIII.-INTERJECTIONS (Interjections). Expressingjoy,

bon ! well! quelle joie ! joy!. grief,

hélas ! alas! ah ! oh! Ô ciel! O heaven! pain,

ah ! ahi! aïe! ouf! ah! fear,

ah! ah! eh! eh! aversion,

fi! fye! fi donc ! fye upon it! surprise,

quoi ! what! vraiment! really! encouraging,

allons ! come! courage ! courage, be

cheerful ! silence,

chut! hush! attention,

tenez! here! voilà ! look here ! contradicting, pardonnez-moi, I beg your pardon. Si

or si fait, yes. warning,

prenez garde! gare! take care, mind!

XXIX.-FORMATION OF TENSES.

as

The Tenses are divided into Primitive and Derivative. The Primitive Tenses are : 1. The Infinitive,

aimer.
2. The Present Participle, aimant.
3. The Past Participle, aimé.
4. The Present Indicative, j'aime.
5. The Past Definite,

j'aimai.

The Derivative Tenses are formed from the Primitive, and are the following:

I. From the INFINITIVE are formed two tenses : 1. The Future, by adding -ai: as j'aimer-ai from

aimer. 2. The Conditional, by adding -ais: as j'aimer-ais

from aimer.

II. From the PRESENT PARTICIPLE are formed three tenses : 1. The three persons plural of the Present Indica

tive, by changing ant into ons, ez, ent: as

aim-ons, aim-ez, aim-ent, from aim-ant. 2. The Imperfect Indicative, by changing -ant into

-ais: as j'aim-ais from aim-ant.

3. The Present Subjunctive, by changing -ant of the

Participle into e: as que j'aim-e from aim-ant. III. From the Past PARTICIPLE are formed all compound

tenses by means of the auxiliary verb avoir, or être : as j'ai aimé, j'avais aimé; je suis venu, j'étais venu.

IV. From the PRESENT INDICATIVE the Imperative is

formed by dropping the Personal Pronoun: as,

aime. V. From the Past DEFINITE is formed the Imperfect

Subjunctive, by changing the termination into -asse
for the first conjugation; into -isse for the second
and fourth conjugations; and into -usse for the
third and sometimes also for the second and fourth
conjugations: as,

que j'aim-asse from j'aimai. (1)
que je fin-isse

je finis. (2)
que je rend-isse

, je rendis. (4) que je reç-usse je reçus. (3) que je cour-usse , je courus. (2) que je l-usse

je lus. (4)

XXX.—IRREGULAR VERBS. The irregularity in the Verbs is chiefly confined to the Primitive Tenses. The Derivative Tenses are for the most part regular.

In the following list of Irregular Verbs the first person only is given, when the other persons are regular.

I. IRREGULAR VERBS OF THE FIRST CONGUGATION.

1. Envoyer, to send. Inf. envoyer. Part. prés. envoyant. Part. passé, envoyé. Pres. j'envoie; nous envoyons, vous envoyez, ils envoient. Prés. du Subj. que j'envoie, que vous envoyiez. Imparf. j'envoyais, nous envoyions, vous envoyiez. Passé def j'envoyai. Imparf. du Subj. que j'envoyasse. Fut. j'enverrai, tu enverras, etc. Cond. j'enverrais, tu enverrais, etc. Impér. envoie, envoyons, envoyez.

2. Aller, to go. Inf. aller.

Part. prés. allant. Part. passé, allé. Prés. je vais, tu vas, il va; nous allons, vous allez, ils vont. Imparf. j'allais, tu allais, il allait, etc. Passé déf. j'allai, tu allas, il alla ; nous allâmes, vous allâtes, ils

allèrent. Fut. jirai, tu iras, il ira; nous irons, vous irez, ils iront. Cond. j'irais, tu irais, etc. Passé indéf. je suis allé. Imper. va (vas-y, go thither); allons, allez. Prés. du Subj. que j'aille, que tu ailles, qu'il aille, que nous allions,

que vous alliez, qu'ils aillent. Imparf. du Subj. que j'allasse, que tu allasses, etc.

3. S'en aller, to go away. This Reflective Verb, on account of its frequent use and its difficulty, must be conjugated fully. Observe that en is never separated from the Pronoun.

INDICATIVE MOOD (Indicatif).

PRESENT TENSE (Présent).
Singular.

Plural, je m'en vais, I am going away.

we are going tu t'en vas, thou art going allons,

away. away.

you are going he is going away.

allez,

away. ils s'en vont, they are going

away.

nous nous en

vous vous en

il s'en va,

Negative. je ne m'en vais I am not going tu ne t'en vas thou art not going pas,

away.

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pas, etc.,

away, etc.

Interrogative.

m'en vais-je ?

am I going away? | t'en vas-tu ? etc. are they going

away ? etc.

Interrogative with a Negative. ne m'en vais-je am I not going ne t'en vas-tu art thou not going away?

pas? etc.

away?

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pas ?

je m'en allais, tu t'en allais,

IMPERFECT TENSE (Imparfait). I was going away. nous nous en we were going thou wast going allions,

away. away.

you were going he was going alliez,

away. away. ils s'en allaient, they were going

away.

vous vous en

il s'en allait,

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