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où, where? est, is; sont, are.

EXERCISE V.

1. J'ai vu la maison du voisin. 2. J'ai vu la maison de la voisine. 3. Il a vu la porte des voisins. 4. Elle a vu la porte des voisines. 5. Nous avons vu la porte de la maison. 6. Vous avez vu les portes des maisons. 7. Ils ont vu le père de l'enfant. 8. Elles ont vu la mère des enfants. 9. Avez-vous vu les livres de l'enfant? 10. Où est l'ami du père? 11. Où sont les amies de la mère ?

1. We have seen the books of the friend (masc.). 2. Have you seen the books of the friend? (fem.) 3. Where is the door of the house? 4. Where are the doors of the houses? 5. Where is the house of the neighbour? (masc.) 6. Where are the houses of the neighbours? (fem.) 7. Where is the uncle of the child? 8. Where is the aunt of the children? 9. Have you seen the friend (masc.) of the uncle? 10. Have you seen the friend (fem.) of the aunt? 11. He has seen the horse of the general. 12. You have seen the horses of the generals.

3. FORMATION OF THE DATIVE (Datif).

The preposition to is expressed in French by à, which is thus used before the articles :

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Au, a contraction of à le, is used before a consonant; à l' before a vowel and h mute.

Aux is a contraction of

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Est, is, and sont, are, when used with à and a substantive or pronoun signify generally belongs, and belong:

as,

le livre est à mon père, the book belongs to my father.

EXERCISE VI.

A.

1. Le chapeau est à mon frère. 2. À qui est la canne? 3. La canne est à mon cousin. 4. Les livres sont aux enfants. 5. À qui sont les chevaux? 6. Les chevaux sont aux généraux. 7. Je donne la rose à ma sœur. 8. Donnez-vous la poire à ma tante? 9. Oui, je donne la poire à ma tante. 10. Le chien est à mon ami. 11. Les chiens sont aux généraux. 12. Le jardin est aux frères et aux

sœurs.

1. The hat belongs to my father. 2. To whom does the hat belong? 3. The hats belong to my brothers. 4. The cane belongs to my brother. 5. To whom do the canes belong? 6. The canes belong to my cousins. 7. I give the book to the child. 8. Do you give the books to the children? 9. Do you give the roses to my sister? 10. Yes, I give the roses to my sisters. 11. Do you give the garden to the brothers and the sisters? 12. I give the dogs to my friends.

voici, here is, here are.

B.

1. Ai-je le livre du cousin? Vous avez le livre du cousin. 2. Avez-vous le portrait de la tante? Oui, j'ai le portrait de la tante. 3. A-t^-il vu le jardin du roi? Non, il a vu le château du roi. 4. Qui a les ciseaux de ma sœur? Voici les ciseaux de votre sœur. 5. A qui sont les noix? Elles sont à l'enfant. 6. A qui sont les poires? Elles sont aux enfants du voisin. 7. À qui est le jardin ?

Il est au roi et à la reine. 8. Avez-vous vu le chien de l'oncle ? Voilà le chien de l'oncle.

1. Have you the books of the neighbour? Yes, I have the books of the neighbour. 2. Have you the likeness of the sister? Yes, I have the likeness of the sister. 3. Has she seen the gardens of the king? No, she has seen the country houses of the king. 4. Who has the scissors of my aunt? Here are the scissors of my aunt. 5. To whom do the nuts belong? They belong to my sister. 6. To whom do the pears belong? They belong to my cousin. 7. To whom do the gardens belong? They belong to the king and to the queen. 8. To whom do the dogs belong? They belong to the generals.

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2. A noun feminine, beginning with a consonant.

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of the table.

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Dat. à la table,

to the table.

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3. A noun masculine or feminine, beginning with a vowel or h mute.

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V. THE PARTITIVE ARTICLE (l'Article partitif).

The Partitive Article, some, is the same as the Genitive of the Definite Article, being compounded of de and the Article:

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1. The Partitive Article is always used in French to express the part of a thing, though it is often omitted in English; as,

j'ai du pain et de la viande, I have some bread and some meat, or I have bread and meat,

meaning, "I have a part of the bread and of the meat."

EXERCISE VII.

1. Il a du pain et de la viande. 2. Avez-vous des enfants, madame? Oui, j'ai trois enfants, un fils et deux filles. 3. Mon

cousin a des chevaux et des chiens. 4. Le roi a de l'or et de l'argent. 5. La reine a des bijoux. 6. Avez-vous du café et du thé? 7. Émilie a du papier et de l'encre. 8. A-t-elle aussi des plumes? 9. Elle a des plumes et des crayons. 10. Avez-vous du vin, monsieur? 11. Non, j'ai de la bière. 12. Le marchand a du fromage et du beurre. 13. Ila du pain, du beurre et du sel.

NOTE. In translating the following sentences, insert the partitive article before the nouns which are not in the Nominative case.

1. Have you bread and meat? 2. I have bread and cheese. 3. Have you bread and butter? 4. I have bread, butter, and cheese. 5. I have gold, silver, and jewels. 6. He has horses and dogs. 7. She has paper and ink. 8. She has pens and pencils. 9. The merchant has wine and beer. 10. The merchant has wine and salt. 11. The children have coffee and tea. 12. The merchant has coffee, tea, and salt.

2. When a partitive noun is in the Genitive case, the article is not used, only de: as, une bouteille de vin, a bottle of wine.

De is used with the Genitive, without the Article, after adverbs of quantity :—

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1. J'ai une livre de viande et deux livres de pain. 2. J'ai un verre de vin. 3. Il a un verre de bière. 4. Combien de café avezvous? 5. J'ai beaucoup de café; j'ai trois livres de café. 6. Avezvous assez de sucre? 7. Combien de pommes avez-vous? 8. J'ai une bouteille de vin. 9. Nous avons trois livres de sucre. 10. Nous avons deux livres de café. 11. La reine a beaucoup de bijoux. 12. Avez-vous assez d'argent? 13. Ils ont plus de viande. 14. Avezvous assez de pain? 15. Combien de personnes sont-elles? Elles sont trois.

1. We have two pounds of meat and three pounds of bread. 2. I have a bottle of beer. 3. The children have two bottles of wine. 4. The merchant has much sugar. 5. How much tea have you? 6. I have much tea; I have four pounds of tea. 7. How much sugar have you? I have three pounds of sugar. 8. Have you enough sugar? I have four pounds of sugar. 9. Have you enough jewels? 10. Have the generals enough horses? 11. The merchant has enough wine and beer. 12. I have two bottles of wine and three bottles of beer.

VI.-PROPER NAMES (Noms propres).

1. Names of Persons in French, as in English, are used without the Article, as, Frédéric, Frederick.

2. Names of Towns in French, as in English, are also without the Article: as, Londres, London; Bruxelles, Brussels; except some few, as Le Havre, La Rochelle.

3. On the contrary, the names of countries and parts of the world have the Article in French: as,

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NOTE.-1. In and to a country are expressed by en, with

out the article: as,

en France, in or to France.

en Angleterre, in or to England.

2. In, at, or to a town are expressed by à: as,

à Paris, in, at, or to Paris.

à Londres, in, at, or to London.

EXERCISE IX.

A.

1. Charles est mon frère. 2. Émilie est ma sœur. 3. J'ai les gants de Sophie. 4. Où est Monsieur Pierre ? Il est à Londres. 5. Où est le chapeau de Frédéric ? Voici le chapeau de Frédéric. 6. Avez-vous vu Madame Johnson? Oui, j'ai vu Madame Johnson. 7. Avez-vous le crayon de Jean? Non, j'ai le crayon de Guillaume. 8. Marie est la fille de Madame Johnson. 9. Est-elle ici? Non, elle est à Paris. 10. Où est Monsieur Guillaume? Il est à Londres. 11. Mon cousin est à Vienne. 12. Où sont les enfants de Madame Johnson? 13. À qui est le chapeau? Il est à Monsieur Frédéric. 1. William is my brother. 2. Mary is my sister. 3. I have the gloves of Miss Emily. 4. Where is Mr. William? He is in Paris. 5. Where is Miss Emily? She is in London. 6. She has the gloves of Miss Sophy. 7. Where is Mrs. Johnson? She is in London. 8. Have you William's pencil? No, I have John's pencil, 9. Have you Peter's hat? Yes, I have Peter's hat. 10. Where is the cousin of Mrs. Johnson? He is in London. 11. To

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