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cousin a des chevaux et des chiens. 4. Le roi a de l'oret de l'argent. 5. La reine a des bijoux. 6. Avez-vous du café et du thé? 7. Émilie a du papier et de l'encre. 8. A-t-elle aussi des plumes ? 9. Elle a des plumes et des crayons. 10. Avez-vous du vin, monsieur? 11. Non, j'ai de la bière. 12. Le marchand a du fromage et du beurre. 13. Il a du pain, du beurre et du sel.

Note.-In translating the following sentences, insert the partitive article before the nouns which are not in the Nominative case.

1. Have you bread and meat? 2. I have bread and cheese. 3. Have you bread and butter? 4. I have bread, butter, and cheese. 5. I have gold, silver, and jewels. 6. He has horses and dogs. 7. She has paper and ink. 8. She has pens and pencils. 9. The merchant has wine and beer. 10. The merchant has wine and salt. 11. The children have coffee and tea. 12. The merchant has coffee, tea, and salt.

2. When a partitive noun is in the Genitive case, the article is not used, only de: as, une bouteille de vin, a bottle of wine.

De is used with the Genitive, without the Article, after adverbs of quantity S

beaucoup,
peu,

much, many.
little.
more.

moins,
assez,
combien ?

less.
enough.
how many ?

plus,

EXERCISE VIII. 1. J'ai une livre de viande et deux livres de pain. 2. J'ai un verre de vin. 3. Il a un verre de bière. 4, Combien de café avezvous ? 5. J'ai beaucoup de café; j'ai trois livres de café. 6. Avezvous assez de sucre ? 7. Combien de pommes avez-vous ? 8. J'ai une bouteille de vin. 9. Nous avons trois livres de sucre. 10. Nous avons deux livres de café. 11. La reine a beaucoup de bijoux. 12. Avez-vous assez d'argent ? 13. Ils ont plus de viande. 14. Avezvous assez de pain ? 15. Combien de personnes sont celles ? Elles sont trois.

1. We have two pounds of meat and three pounds of bread. 2. I have a bottle of beer. 3. The children have two bottles of wine. 4. The merchant has much sugar. 5. How much tea have you? 6. I have much tea; I have four pounds of tea. 7. How much sugar have you? I have three pounds of sugar. _8. Have you enough sugar? I have four pounds of sugar. 9. Have you enough jewels ? 10. Have the generals enough horses ? 11. The merchant has enough wine and beer. 12. I have two bottles of wine and three bottles of beer,

VI.-PROPER NAMES (Noms propres). 1. Names of Persons in French, as in English, are used without the Article, as, Frédéric, Frederick.

2. Names of Towns in French, as in English, are also without the Article: as, Londres, London ; Bruxelles, Brussels ; except some few, as Le Havre, La Rochelle.

3. On the contrary, the names of countries and parts of the world have the Article in French : as,

:

l'Europe, Europe.
l'Asie, Asia.
l'Afrique, Africa.
l'Amérique, America.
la France, France,
l'Angleterre, England.

l'Allemagne,
la Russie,
la Prusse,
la Saxe,
la Belgique,
l'Espagne,

Germany.
Russia.
Prussia.
Saxony.
Belgium.
Spain.

Note.—1, In and to a country are expressed by en, without the article : as,

en France, in or to France.
en Angleterre, in or to England.

2. In, at, or to a town are expressed by à : as,

à Paris, in, at, or to Paris.
à Londres, in, at, or to London.

EXERCISE IX.

A.

1. Charles est mon frère. 2. Émilie est ma soeur. 3. J'ai les gants de Sophie. 4. Où est Monsieur Pierre ? Il est à Londres. 5. Où est le chapeau de Frédéric ? Voici le chapeau de Frédéric. 6. Avez-vous vu Madame Johnson ? Oui, j'ai vu Madame Johnson. 7. Avez-vous le crayon de Jean ? Non, j'ai le crayon de Guillaume. 8. Marie est la fille de Madame Johnson. 9. Est-elle ici ? Non, elle est à Paris. 10. Où est Monsieur Guillaume ? Il est à Londres. 11. Mon cousin est à Vienne. 12. Où sont les enfants de Madame Johnson ? 13. À qui est le chapeau ? Il est à Monsieur Frédéric.

1. William is my brother. 2. Mary is my sister. 3. I have the gloves of Miss Emily. 4. Where is Mr. William ? He is in Paris. 5. Where is Miss Emily? She is in London. 6. She has the gloves of Miss Sophy. 7. Where is Mrs. Johnson? She is in London. - 8. Have you William's pencil? No, I have John's pencil. 9. Have you Peter's hat? Yes, I have Peter's hat. 10. Where is the cousin of Mrs. Johnson ? He is in London, 11. To whom do the gloves belong ? They belong to Miss Mary. 12. Have you seen Mr. Johnson ? Yes, I have seen Mr. Johnson.

B.

1. Les parties du monde sont l'Europe, l'Asie, l'Amérique et l'Afrique. 2. Londres est la capitale de l'Angleterre. 3. Mon cousin est en Amérique. 4. Mon père est en Angleterre. 5. Berlin est la capitale de la Prusse. 6. Dresde est la capitale de la Saxe. 7. Mon frère est en Afrique. 8. Mon frère, où est--il? Il est en Angleterre.

1. Europe is a part of the world. 2. Asia is a part of the world. 3. Africa is a part of the world. 4. America is a part of the world. 5. My father is in France. 6. My brother is in London, 7. My cousin is in Germany, and my brother is in Dresden, 8. Where is my cousin ? He is in Dresden.

VII.--THE VERB AVOIR, to have.

INDICATIVE MOOD (Indicatif).

PRESENT TENSE (Présent).
Singular.

Plural.
j'ai,
I have.

nous avons,

we have. thou hast.

vous avez, il ou elle a, he or she has. ils ou elles ont, they have.

tu as,

you have.

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FUTURE TENSE (Futur). I shall have. nous aurons, thou wilt have. vous aurez, he will have. ils auront,

j'aurai, tu auras, il aura,

we shall have. you will have. they will have.

* Not pronounced.

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eu, had.

PAST INDEFINITE TENSE (Passé indefini).
Singular.

Plural. j'ai eu,

I have had. nous avons eu, we have had. tu as eu, thou hast had. vous avez

eu, you have had. he has had. ils ont eu, they have had.

il a eu,

j'avais eu, tu avais eu, il avait eu,

PLUPERFECT TENSE (Plus-que-parfait).
I had had. nous avions eu, we had had.
thou hadst had. vous aviez eu, you had had.
he had had. ils avaient eu, they had had.

j'eus eu, tu eus eu, il eut eu,

PAST ANTERIOR TENSE (Passé antérieur).

I had had. nous eûmes eu, we had had.
thou hadst had. vous eûtes

eu,

you had had. he had had. ils eurent eu,

they had had.

FUTURE ANTERIOR TENSE (Futur antérieur). j'aurai eu, I shall have had. nous aurons eu, we shall tu auras eu, thou wilt have had. vous aurez eu, you will il aura eu,

he will have had. | ils auront eu, they will

have had

j'aurais, tu aurais, il aurait,

CONDITIONAL MOOD (Conditionnel).

PRESENT TENSE (Présent).
I should have. nous aurions, we should have.
thou wouldst have. vous auriez,

you would have.
he would have. ils auraient,

they would have.

j'aurais eu, tu aurais eu, il aurait eu,

have had

PAST TENSE (Passe).

First Form.
I should

nous aurions eu we should
thou wouldst vous auriez eu, you would
he would

ils auraient

eu, they would
Second Form.
I should have nous eussions eu, we should have
had.

had.
thou wouldst vous eussiez eu, you would have
have had.

had.
he would have ils eussent eu, they would have
had.

had.

j'eusse eu,

tu eusses eu,

il eût eu,

IMPERATIVE MOOD (Impératif).

ayons,

let us have. have (thou).

ayez,

have (ye or you).

aie,

1

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD (Subjonctif).

PRESENT TENSE (Présent).
Singular.

Plural. que j'aie,

that I may have. que nous ayons, that we may have. que tu aies, that thou mayst que vous ayez, that you may have.

have. qu'il ait, that he may have. qu'ils aient,

that they may

have.

que j'eusse,

que tu eusses,

IMPERFECT TENSE (Imparfait). that I might have. que nous eussions, that we might

have. that thou mightst que vous eussiez, that you might have.

have. that he might qu'ils

eussent, that they might have.

have.

qu'il

eût,

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PAST TENSE (Passe). que j'aie eu, that I may have que nous ayons eu,

had. que tu aies eu, that thou mayst que vous ayez eu,

have had. qu'il ait eu, that he may have qu'ils aient eu,

had.

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PLUPERFECT TENSE (Plus-que-parfait). que j'eusse eu, that I might have que nous eussions eu, that we had.

might have had. que tu eusses eu, that thou mightst que vous eussiez eu, that you have had.

might have had. qu'il eût eu,

that he might qu'ils eussent eu,
have had.

might have had.

that they

INFINITIVE MOOD (Infinitif). PRESENT TENSE (Présent).

Past TENSE (Passe). to have.

| avoir eu, to have had.

avoir,

PARTICIPLES (Participes).
PRESENT (Present).

Past (Passe).

eu, f. eue, had.
ayant,
having.

ayant
eu,

having had.

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