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1. Where has he been? 2. He has been to Paris. 3. Has he been ill? 4. Yes, he has been ill. 5. Has the servant been faithful ? 6. Will the servant have been faithful ? 7. Have you been to the post ? 8. Has Emily been to the play? 9. Will the master have been just ? 10. Would they have been sad ? 11. The master has been just. 12. The servant will have been faithful.

hier,

yesterday.

votre,

your.

si, if.

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ne ai 1. Avez-vous ma canne ? Non, je n'ai pas votre canne. 2. Etesvous malade ? Non, je ne suis pas malade. 3. Le maître n'avait pas le temps hier. 4. Monsieur Johnson n'était pas content. 5. Avez-vous été à Paris ? Non, je n'ai pas été à Paris. 6. Le thème ne serait pas difficile, si j'avais le temps. 7. Ne soyez pas triste. 8. Votre père est^-il riche? Non, Madame, il n'est pas riche.

1. Have you my horse ? No, I have not your horse. 2. Are you rich ? No, I am not rich. 3. The master had not the time yesterday. 4. Has your master been just ? No, he has not been always just. 5. Is your sister ill? No, she is not ill. 6. Has your brother been poor? No, he has not been poor. 7. He would not be rich if he had the house. 8. Shall you be in London ? No, I shall not be in London.

avoir raison, to have reason,

avoir tort, means to be right. pas enoore,

fait, done.

to have wrong,

means to be wrong. pourquoi, why?

not yet.

D.

.

1. N'ai-je pas un frère ? 2. N'as-tu pas une scur? 3. N'ai-je pas eu raison ? 4. Non, vous n'avez pas eu raison ; vous avez

eu tort. 5. N'avez-vous pas eu votre déjeuner ? Non, je n'ai pas eu mon déjeuner. 6. Pourquoi n'avez-vous pas fait votre thème; n'aviez-vous pas le temps ? Non, je n'avais pas le temps, je n'étais pas à la maison. 7. N'aurais-je pas eu de plaisir ? 8. N'auriezvous pas été content ? 9. Louis n'est-il pas encore à la maison ? 10. Serait -il content, s'il

avait de l'argent ? Non, il ne serait pas content.

1. Has he not a brother? 2. Has she not a sister ? 3. Was I not right? 4. No, you were not right; you were wrong. 5. Was I not wrong? 6. No, you were not wrong, you were right. 7. Have I had my dinner? No, you have not had your dinner. 8. Why have you not done your exercise? I had not the time. 9. Shall we not have had pleasure? 10. Would you be content if you had money ? No, I should not be content.

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IX.-THE ADJECTIVE (l’Adjectif). There are six classes of Adjectives, qualificative, possessive, demonstrative, interrogative, numeral, and indefinite.

1. Qualificative Adjectives (Adjectifs qualificatifs).

Qualificative Adjectives express a quality of persons or things, as :

un grand homme, a great man, un bon livre, a good book.

A. FORMATION OF THE FEMININE OF ADJECTIVES. GENERAL RULE (Règle générale.). -The Feminine is formed by adding e to the Masculine, as :

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Masculine.

petit,
grand,
haut,
vrai,
appliqué,
joli,

Examples. Feminine. petite, grande, haute, vraie, appliquée, jolie,

small. great. high. true. diligent. pretty.

EXCEPTIONS. 1. When the masculine ends in e mute, the feminine is the same, as :--Masculine.

Feminine. riche,

riche,

rich. pauvre,

pauvre,

poor.

2. Adjectives in el, eil, n, s, t, double the final consonant in the feminine before e, as ::

Masculine.

cruel,
pareil,
bon,
gras,
sot,

Feminine. cruelle, pareille, bonne, grasse, sotte,

cruel. like. good. fat. stupid.

3. Adjectives in f change the f into ve in the feminine, terinin tanze che r into se in the teminine ; it nonostilables, no use, as :Vasenline.

as:

Masculine.

vif,
actif,
neuf,

Feminine.
vive,
active,
neuve,

lively.
active.
new.

Feminine jenten,

Ter?, na pn. aw,

aconse.

jections. sisse.

illse. 3. diberties in ar ant et uke e in the teminine, and hare a grave accent won the ast pilable out one, as : Vascaline.

Feminine. lezer,

lerere.

Tiuht. cher.

chere.

terr. diseret,

discrete

ti screet. completo

complete complete. B. Adjectives in c, of which there are only a few, change the c into che in the feminine, 48:Magcaline.

Feminine. bianc,

bianche,

white. franc,

franche, frink. sec,

seche,

dry. Other Adjectives in e, change the e into que, as

Feminine public,

publique, public. ture,

turque,

Turkish. Except Crec, Greek, which makes grecque. 7. The following Adjectives differ slightly in the Feminine from the above rules :Masculine,

Feminine. long,

longue, long. aiga,

aiguë,

sharp. frais,

fraiche, fresh. ( 14,

douce,

sueet. muiet,

moeite,

dumb. épaisse,

thick. bénin,

bénigne, kind. talin,

maligne, mischievous. svijet,

sujette, subject, 8. The following are irregular:Masculine

Feminine. healt,

belle,

beautiful.
11011 Verit,

nouvelle,
molle,

soft.
folle,

foolish. vietis,

vicille,

old.

Masculine

neu.

Obs. These five Adjectives have kept also the Masculine old forms :-bel, nouvel, mol,

fol, and vieil, which are used only before Masculine Nouns beginning with a vowel
or h mute, as :-

un bel arbre, a beautiful tree.
un fol espoir, a foolish hope.

un bel homme, a fine man. 9. Adjectives in eur mostly form their feminine in euse; those in teur form their feminine in trice, as :Masculine.

Feminine. trompeur,

trompeuse, deceitful. protecteur,

protectrice, protecting. Some others change eur into eresse : Masculine.

Feminine. pécheur,

pécheresse,

sinner. vengeur,

vengeresse, avenger. Obs. Most of the words in eur are properly substantives.

B. FORMATION OF THE PLURAL OF ADJECTIVES.

Plural.

GENERAL RULE. -The Plural of Adjectives, both Masculine and Feminine, is formed, like that of Substantives, by adding s to the Singular, as

Singular. Masc. grand,

grands,

} great. Fem. grande,

grandes, Masc. appliqué,

appliqués, Fem. appliquée,

} appliquées, / diligent.

, Masc. bon,

bons, Fem. bonne,

bonnes,

} good.

Plural.

EXCEPTIONS. 1. Adjectives in s and x remain unchanged in the Plural Masculine, as :

Singular gras,

gras,

fat. heureux,

heureux, happy. 2. Adjectives in au add x in the Plural Masculine, as : beau,

beaux,

beautiful. nouveau,

nouveaux, 3. Adjectives in al generally change al into aux in the Plural Masculine, as : égal,

égaux, equal. royal,

royaux,

royal.

new.

C. AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES AND SUBSTANTIVES. Adjectives agree with their Substantives in gender and number, whether they are placed before or after the Substantives, as :la grande maison,

the large house. la maison est grande,

the house is large.
les grandes maisons,

the large houses.
les maisons sont grandes, the houses are large.

EXERCISE XII.

A.

1. Le jardin de mon père est grand. 2. Ma maison est petite. 3. La maison du général est grande. 4. La mère de l'enfant est très-pauvre. 5. Ma fortune était-elle grande ? 6. Non, elle n'était pas grande; elle était petite. 7. Les écoliers sont appliqués; les écolières sont aussi appliquées. 8. La nouvelle est-elle vraie ? Non, elle n'est pas vraie. 9. Mes enfants sont très-heureux, ils ont beaucoup de joujoux. 10. Avez-vous vu les beaux arbres dans le jardin ? 11. Non, je n'ai pas encore été dans le jardin. 12. La fille du voisin est muette.

1. My garden is small. 2. The house of my brother is great. 3. The house of the cousin is small. 4. The general is very (très) poor. 5. The children of the general are very poor. 6. Is the fortune of my mother great ? No, it is not great; it is small. 7. The trees of the garden are beautiful. 8. The scholar (masc.) is diligent; the scholar (fem.) is also diligent. 9. The son of the neighbour is dumb. 10. The daughters of the general are also dumb. 11. Have you seen the great house of the general ? 12. No, I have not yet seen the great house of the general.

B. 1. Le roi est bon; la reine est bonne aussi. 2. La femme n'est pas sotte. 3. La fille est très-vive; la mère est très-active. 4. Le chapeau est-il neuf ? Non, il n'est pas neuf. 5. Mon oncle a une jolie maison et un grand jardin. 6. Le lait est frais ; l'eau n'est pas fraîche. 7. La plume est trop molle, elle n'est pas bonne. 8. Mon grand-père est vieux. 9. Ma grand’mère est aussi très-vieille. 10. Quel âge a-t-elle ? Elle a quatre-vingt-deux ans. 11. Caroline est très-paresseuse. 12. Les filles ne sont pas heureuses; elles sont très-malheureuses.

1. The kings are good; the queens are also good. 2. The women are not foolish. 3. The daughters are very active. 4. Are the hats new? No, they are not new. 5. My father has a great house and a pretty garden. 6. The pens are too soft; they are not good. 7. Is the milk'fresh ? 8. How old is he? (say, What age has he?) He is three years old (say, He has three years). 9. Frederick is idle. 10. The girls are very (très) idle. 11. My grandmother is not happy; she is very unhappy. 12. My grandfather is not happy ; he is very unhappy.

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