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sa,

our.

2. Possessive Adjectives (Adjectifs possessifs).
The Possessive Adjectives are :
Singular.

Plural.
Masc.

Fem.

Masc. and Fem.
mon,
ma,

mes, my.
ton,
ta,

tes, thy.
son,

ses, his, her, its.
notre,
notre,

nos,
votre,
votre,

vos, your.
leur,
leur,

leurs, their. 1. Mon, ton, son, are used before substantives feminine beginning with a vowel or h mute, instead of ma, ta, sa, in order to avoid an hiatus, as :

mon amie (instead of ma amie), my friend (fem.).
ton épouse (instead of ta épouse), thy wife.

son humilité (instead of sa humilité), his humility. 2. Possessive Adjectives agree with their Substantives in gender and number. In English, the Possessive Adjective agrees with the subject of the sentence; but this is not the case in French, as :le père aime son fils et sa fille, the father loves his son and

his daughter.
la mère aime son fils et sa fille, the mother loves her son and

her daughter. les parents aiment leur enfant, the parents love their child. les parents aiment leurs enfants, the parents love their children. 3. Possessive Adjectives are repeated in French with every Substantive to which they refer, though in English one Possessive Adjective only is used, and the others are understood, as :

mon père, ma mère, et mes frères my father, mother, and
sont à Londres,

brothers are in London,

EXERCISE XV. 1. Mon ami est malade. 2. Ton père est à Berlin. 3. Ta tante demeure-t-elle (lives) ici ? Oui, elle demeure ici ; mais elle n'est pas à la maison maintenant. 4. L'oncle aime son neveu, la tante aime aussi son neveu. 5. Elle aime aussi sa nièce. 6. Notre père est bon. 7. Où est votre cahier ? Voici mon cahier. 8. Où sont vos cabiers ? Voici nos cahiers. 9. Caroline est mon amie; est-elle aussi ton amie? 10. Les écoliers aiment leurs maîtres. 11. Avez-vous vu mon père ? Non, Mademoiselle, je n'ai pas vu Monsieur votre père ; il n'était pas ici. 12. Voici le chapeau de Madame votre mère.

1. My aunt is ill. 2. Thy mother is in London. 3. Does my uncle DEMONSTRATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES. 39

live here? Yes, he lives here; but he is not in the house at present. 4. The uncle loves his nephew and his niece. 5. The aunt loves her nephew and her niece. 6. Our mother is good. 7. Have you seen my copy-book ? Here is (voici) your copy-book. 8. Have you seen my friend (fem.)? Yes, I have seen your friend (fem.). 9. My father, my mother, and my sisters were in London. 10. The aunts love their nephew. 11. The aunts love their nephews. 12, I have seen your two horses.

Plural.
Masc. and Fem.

Masc.

Fem.

3. Demonstrative Adjective (Adjectif démonstratif). The Demonstrative Adjective is :

Singular. ce,

} cette, this or that. 1 ces, cot,

these or those. Ce is used before a substantive masculine beginning with a consonant; cet before a vowel and h mute.

Examples.
Singular.

Plural ce chapeau, this hat.

ces chapeaux, these hats. cet arbre, this tree.

ces arbres, these trees. cet habit, this coat.

ces habits, these coats. cette femme, this woman. ces femmes,

these women. Ci (here), and là, there, are often joined by a hyphen to the Substantive, to give greater emphasis.

Examples. ce garçon-ci, this boy (here). cette femme-là, that woman ce garçon-là, that boy (there).

(there). cette femme-ci, this woman (here). ces arbres-ci, these trees (here).

ces arbres-là, those trees (there).

4. Interrogative Adjective (Adjectif interrogatif).
The Interrogative Adjective is :-
Singular.

Plural.
Masc. Fem.

Masc.

Fem.
quel,
quelle, quels, quelles, which ? or what ?

Examples.
quel livre? which book ? quels livres ? which books ?
quelle maison ? which house ? quelles maisons? which houses ?
Quel is also used in exclamations, as :-

quel beau livre ! what a beautiful book !*
* N.B. The English indefinite article is not expressed in French.

.

Nore.- Quel may be separated from its Substantive by the verb “être,” but it agrees with the Substantive just the same, as :quel est votre nom ?

what is your name? quelle est cette fleur ?

what is that flower ?

EXERCISE XVI.

1. Cette boîte est grande. 2. Ces enfants sont pauvres. 3. J'ai vu le frère de ce garçon. 4. J'ai deux livres de ce café. 5. Je donne (I give) ces poires à cette fille-ci.' 6. J'ai vu ces chiens-là. 7. Quels chiens avez-vous vus ? 8. Quel beau cheval! 9. Quel est ce livre ? 10. Le fils de cet homme-là est très-grand. 11. Quelle heure (what o'clock, lit. what hour) est-il ? Il est trois heures. Il est une heure. 12. Quelle fleur a-t-elle ? Elle a une rose.

1. These boxes are great. 2. That child is poor. 3. Have you seen the sister of this boy? 4. The merchant has three pounds of this tea, 5. I give these apples to that boy (there). 6. We have seen those horses (there). 7. What horses have you seen ? 8. What a beautiful house! 9. What a beautiful flower! 10. The son of that man (there) is good. 11. What o'clock is it? It is one o'clock. It is two o'clock. It is three o'clock. It is four o'clock. 12. What is that letter (lettre, fem.)?

5. Numeral Adjectives (Adjectifs numéraux).

A. CARDINAL NUMERALS (Nombres cardinaux). Cardinal Numerals denote numbers simply or absolutely,

as:

un, une, one; deux, two; trois, three.

CARDINAL NUMERALS.

1 Un, m, une, f. 2 Deux. 3 Trois. 4 Quatre. 5 Cinq. 6 Six. 7 Sept. 8 Huit. 9 Neuf. 10 Dix.

11 Onze. 12 Douze. 13 Treize. 14 Quatorze. 15 Quinze. 16 Seize. 17 Dix-sept. 18 Dix-huit. 19 Dix-neuf. 20 Vingt.

21/Vingt-un.

Vingt et un.*
22 Vingt-deux.
23 Vingt-trois.
24 Vingt-quatre.
25 Vingt-cinq.
26 Vingt-six.
27 Vingt-sept.
28 Vingt-huit.
29 Vingt-neuf.
30 Trente.
31 Trente et un.*
32 Trente-deux.
33 Trente-trois.
34 Trente-quatre.
35 Trente-cinq.
36 Trente-six.
37 Trente-sept.
38 Trente-huit.
39 Trente-neuf.
40 Quarante.
41 Quarante et un.*
42 Quarante-deux.
43 Quarante-trois.
44 Quarante-quatre.
45 Quarante-cinq.
46 Quarante-six,
47 Quarante-sept.
48 Quarante-huit.
49 Quarante-neuf.
50 Cinquante.
51 Cinquante et un.*
52 Cinquante-deux.
53 Cinquante-trois.
54 Cinquante-quatre.
55 Cinquante-cinq.
56 Cinquante-six.
57 Cinquante-sept.
58 Cinquante-huit.
59 Cinquante-neuf,
60 Soixante.
61 Soixante et un.
62 Soixante-deux.
63 Soixante-trois.
64 Soixante-quatre.
65 Soixante-cinq.
66 Soixante-six.
67 Soixante-sept.
68 Soixante-huit.
69 Soixante-neuf.
70 Soixante-dix.
71 Soixante et onze.*

72 Soixante-douze. 73 Soixante-treize. 74 Soixante-quatorze. 75 Soixante-quinze. 76 Soixante-seize. 77 Soixante-dix-sept. 78 Soixante-dix-huit. 79 Soixante-dix-neuf. 80 Quatre-vingts. 81 Quatre-vingt-un. 82 Quatre-vingt-deux. 83 Quatre-vingt-trois. 84 Quatre-vingt-quatre. 85 Quatre-vingt-cinq. 86 Quatre-vingt-six. 87 Quatre-vingt-sept. 88 Quatre-vingt-huit. 89 Quatre-vingt-neuf. 90 Quatre-vingt-dix. 91 Quatre-vingt-onze. 92 Quatre-vingt-douze. 93 Quatre-vingt-treize. 94 Quatre-vingt-quatorze. 95 Quatre-vingt-quinze. 96 Quatre-vingt-seize. 97 Quatre-vingt-dix-sept. 98 Quatre-vingt-dix-huit. 99 Quatre-vingt-dix-neuf. 100 Cent. 101 Cent un. 102 Cent deux. 120 Cent vingt. 121 Cent vingt et un, etc. 130 Cent trente. 200 Deux cents. 210 Deux cent dix. 300 Trois cents. 400 Quatre cents. 500 Cinq cents. 600 Six cents. 700 Sept cents. 800 Huit cents. 900 Neuf cents. 1000 Mille, 2000 Deux mille. 3000 Trois mille. 4000 Quatre mille.

5000 Cinq mille, etc. 10,000 Dix mille. 20,000 Vingt mille. 30,000 Trente mille. 40,000 Quarante mille.

* In the numbers marked thus (*) the et may or may not be used.

50,000 Cinquante mille. 100,000 Cent mille. 200,000 Deux cent mille. 500,000 Cinq cent mille.

1,000,000 Un million.

2,000,000 Deux millions, etc. 100,000,000 Cent millions, etc.

Examples.
cinq enfants, five (5) children.

trente-six chevaux, thirty-six (36) horses.
trois cent quatre-vingt-quinze three hundred and ninety-five
soldats.

(395) soldiers.

REMARKS. 1. The Numerals remain unchanged with their Substantives, except cent and quatre-vingt.

Cent takes s when multiplied by a numeral, and not followed by another numeral, as :

trois cents hommes, three hundred men:

but, trois cent dix hommes, three hundred and ten men. Vingt takes s when multiplied by the numeral quatre (four) (quatre-vingts), and not followed by another numeral,

as:

quatre-vingts écoliers, 80 pupils :
but, quatre-vingt-deux écoliers, 82 pupils.

2. Mille, thousand, never takes 8, as :

trois mille che ix, 3000 horses.

3. Mil is used instead of " mille" in dates, as :

l'an mil huit cent cinquante-un, the year 1851. en mil huit cent quarante-huit, in 1848, omitting the word year.

4. Il y a is used in reference to past time in such expressions as the following :il y a trente ans,

30 years ago. il y a une heure,

an hour ago.

5. In speaking of a person's age, the verb “to have” is used in French, and not the verb “to be," as in English,

as:

J'ai huit ans,
J'ai dix ans,
Frédéric a vingt ans,

I am eight years old (lit. I have eight years).
I am ten years old.
Frederick is twenty years old.

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