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3. The hours of the day are thus expressed :

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what o'clock is it? lit. what hour is it?

it is one o'clock, lit. it is one hour. it is two o'clock.

it is three o'clock.

it is half-past three.

it is twelve o'clock (noon).
it is twelve (at night)
it is half-past twelve.
it is a quarter past twelve.
it is a quarter to two.
it is ten minutes to two.
it is five minutes to two.
it is five minutes past two.
it is ten minutes past two.
it is a quarter past two.

NOTE.-Observe that in these examples, moins, less, is used to indicate the time wanted to complete an hour, the word minutes being understood, thus:

il est deux heures moins dix, lit. it is two hours less ten (minutes); that is, it is ten minutes to two.

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1. Avril est le quatrième mois de l'année. 2. Je suis le huitième de ma classe. Mon frère est le † onzième. Charles est le dernier. 3.

* It can be said also: il est deux heures cinq, deux heures dix, deux heures un quart. + Before onze or onzième, a vowel is never elided.

Un mois est la douzième partie de l'année. 4. Le mois de Février a vingt-huit jours; Juin a trente jours. 5. Janvier est le premier, Mars le troisième, Juillet le septième, et Décembre le dernier mois de l'année. 6. La cinquième fenêtre du second étage est belle. 7. Charles douze était roi de Suède. 8. La semaine est la cinquantedeuxième partie de l'année. 9. Quelle heure est-il? Il est cinq heures. 10. Quelle heure est-il? Il est cinq heures et demie. 11. Quelle heure est-il? Il est cinq heures moins un quart. 12. Quelle heure est-il? Il est six heures moins dix minutes. 13. Quelle heure est-il? Il est midi moins un quart. 14. Quelle heure est-il? Il est midi un quart.

1. February is the second month of the year. 2. I am the tenth in my class. My cousin is the thirteenth, and Frederick is the last. 3. Sunday is the first, Monday the second, Tuesday the third, and Saturday the last day of the week. 4. The month of July has thirty-one days. 5. August is the eighth, and November the eleventh month of the year. 6. The sixth window of the third floor is beautiful. 7. Louis the fifteenth was king of France. 8. Charles the first was king of England. 9. What o'clock is it? It is four o'clock. 10. What o'clock is it? It is half-past four. 11. What o'clock is it? It is a quarter to one. 12. What o'clock is it? It is a quarter past one. 13. What o'clock is it? It is ten minutes 14. What o'clock is it? It is five minutes past

past three. twelve.

B.

1. Ma sœur est née le vingt-huit Juillet, mil huit cent trentecinq. 2. Quelle place as-tu? Je suis le vingtième. 3. Quelle place a ton frère? Il est le dix-septième de la classe. 4. Dans quelle classe est Richard? Il est en seconde. 5. Quand avezvous vu votre mère? Hier soir, à cinq heures. 6. Quel âge a-t-elle ? Elle a quinze ans. 7. Dans quelle année est-elle née? Elle est née en mil huit cent quarante-cinq. Dans quel mois? Au mois d'Octobre. Quel jour ? Le onze. 8. Quelle heure est-il? Il est sept heures et demic. 9. Combien de beurre avez-vous? J'ai une livre et demie de beurre et deux livres et un quart de fromage. 10. Est-il trois heures maintenant? Mademoiselle, il est deux heures et demie.

Non,

1. My niece was born on the nineteenth of August, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight. 2. When did you see your sister? Yesterday, at half-past four. 3. How old is she? She is sixteen. 4. In what year was she born? She was born in 1856. 5. In what month? In the (au) month of April. 6. What o'clock is it? It is half-past two. 7. What place has the boy? He is the tenth in the class. 8. What place has the girl? She is the thirteenth in the class. 9. How much cheese have you? I have a pound and a half of cheese, and two pounds and a quarter of butter. 10. Is it four o'clock now? No, Madam; it is half-past three.

6. Indefinite Adjectives (Adjectifs indéfinis).

The Indefinite Adjectives are:

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nul, f. nulle,

none, no one.

maint, f. mainte, many, many a

quelque, sing.
quelques, pl.

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certain, f. certaine, certain, some one. plusieurs, pl.

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1. When tout means all or the whole, the definite article or the possessive adjective is always used with the substantive, as:

toute la ville,

the whole town.

tous les hommes, all the men, or

all men.

toutes les lettres, all the letters. tous ses enfans, all his children.

2. Aucun and nul require the negative ne, as :je ne connais aucun de ses amis,

I know none of his friends,

EXERCISE XIX.

1 Chaque enfant a son livre. 2. Toute la maison est neuve. 3. Charles n'a aucune faute dans son thème. 4. Maint homme est

pauvre. 5. Nous avons eu quelque plaisir à la campagne. 6. Tous Îes hommes ne sont pas riches. 7. Je parle de certaines personnes. 8. J'ai vu plusieurs oiseaux dans votre jardin. 9. Ces roses sont de différentes couleurs. 10. Nulle rose n'est sans épines. 11. Chaque âge a ses chagrins et ses plaisirs. 12. Tous les hommes sont mortels. 13. Tout ce pays est pauvre. 14. Toute chose a son temps. 15. Je n'ai aucune nouvelle de mon frère. 16. Plusieurs hommes ont le même nom. 17. Maint paysan est très-pauvre. 18. Nul homme n'est toujours heureux.

1. Each girl has her book. 2. Each boy has his horse. 3. Caroline has no fault in her theme. 4. Many a man is very poor. 5. She has had some pleasure in the country. 6. He speaks of certain persons. 7. Who is mortal? All men are mortal. 8. Have I faults (des fautes) in my theme? Yes, you have several faults. 9. To whom belong (sont) these houses? All these houses belong to my uncle. 10. Have you many faults (beaucoup de fautes)? No, I have no faults. 11. She has no news of her sister. 12. I have some books. 13. My sister has several friends. 14. My aunt is not always happy.

X. THE VERB (le Verbe).

There are five sorts of Verbs in French :

1. ACTIVE (le verbe actif).
2. PASSIVE (le verbe passif).
3. NEUTER (le verbe neutre).
4. REFLECTIVE (le verbe réfléchi).
5. IMPERSONAL (le verbe impersonnel).

Verbs have five MOODS (Modes) in French :

1. The INDICATIVE (l'indicatif).

2. The CONDITIONAL (le conditionnel).
3. The IMPERATIVE (l'impératif).
4. The SUBJUNCTIVE (le subjonctif).
5. The INFINITIVE (l'infinitif).

To which may be added

The PARTICIPLE (le participe),

which is a verbal adjective.

:

Verbs have eight TENSES (temps) in French, one Present (présent), five Past (passé), and two Future (futur).

Tenses are divided into Simple (les temps simples) and Compound (les temps composés), the latter being composed of the past participle with a tense of the auxiliary verbs, avoir or être.

The eight tenses are:

1. PRESENT (le présent): j'aime, I love.

2. IMPERFECT (l'imparfait), expresses a past action going on while another took place, as: je lisais quand vous entrâtes, I was reading when you came in.

3. PAST DEFINITE (le passé défini) expresses a past action entirely finished at a time specified, as: je voyageai l'année dernière, I travelled last year.

4. PAST INDEFINITE (le passé indéfini) or Compound of the Present, expresses a thing as having taken place, without specifying when, or which has happened at a time not entirely past, as: il a beaucoup voyagé, he has travelled much j'ai écrit aujourd'hui, I wrote to-day.

5. PLUPERFECT (le plus-que-parfait), or Compound of the IMPERFECT, expresses a thing habitual or repeated, but

which happened immediately before a past event, as: j'avais déjeuné quand vous entrâtes, I had breakfasted when

you came in.

6. PAST ANTERIOR (le passé antérieur) or Compound of the Past Definite, expresses a thing that happened immediately before a past event, as: quand j'eus lu, je partis, when I had read, I went away.

7. FUTURE (le futur): j'aimerai, I shall love.

8. FUTURE ANTERIOR (le futur antérieur): j'aurai aimé,

I shall have loved.

French Verbs have four CONJUGATIONS (conjugaisons), distinguished by the ending of the Infinitive Mood, as :

I. The First Conjugation ends in er:

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{

as, aimer,
to love.

as, finir,
to finish.
as, recevoir,
to receive.

{as, rendre,

to render.

XI.-FIRST CONJUGATION.-ACTIVE VOICE.

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