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X.- THE VERB (le Verbe).
There are five sorts of Verbs in French :-

1. ACTIVE (le verbe actif).
2. PASSIVE (le verbe passif).
3. NEUTER (le verbe neutre).
4. REFLECTIVE (le verbe réfléchi).

5. IMPERSONAL (le verbe impersonnel). Verbs have five Moods (Modes) in French :

1. The INDICATIVE (l'indicatif).
2. The CONDITIONAL" (le conditionnel).
3. The IMPERATIVE (l'impératif).
4. The SUBJUNCTIVE (le subjonctif).

5. The INFINITIVE (l'infinitif). To which may be added

The PARTICIPLE (le participe), which is a verbal adjective.

Verbs have eight TENSES (temps) in French, one Present (présent), five Past (passé), and two Future (futur).

Tenses are divided into Simple (les temps simples) and Compound (les temps composés), the latter being composed of the past participle with a tense of the auxiliary verbs, avoir or étre.

The eight tenses are :
1. PRESENT (le présent) : j'aime, I love.

2. IMPERFECT (l'imparfait), expresses a past action going on while another took place, as : je lisais quand vous entrâtes, I was reading when you came in.

3. Past DEFINITE (le passé défini) expresses a past action entirely finished at a time specified, as : je voyageai l'année dernière, I travelled last year.

4. PAST INDEFINITE (le passé indéfini) or Compound of the Present, expresses a thing as having taken place, without specifying when, or which has happened at a time not entirely past, as : il a beaucoup voyage, he has travelled much : j'ai écrit aujourd'hui, I wrote to-day.

5. PLUPERFECT (le plus-que-parfait), or Compound of the IMPERFECT, expresses a thing habitual or repeated, but

which happened immediately before a past event, as : j'avais déjeuné quand vous entrâtes, I had breakfasted when you came in.

6. Past ANTERIOR (le passé antérieur) or Compound of the Past Definite, expresses a thing that happened immediately before a past event, as : quand j'eus lu, je partis, when I had read, I went away.

7. FUTURE (le futur): j'aimerai, I shall love.

8. FUTURE ANTERIOR (le futur antérieur) : j'aurai aimé, I shall have loved.

French Verbs have four CONJUGATIONS (conjugaisons), distinguished by the ending of the Infinitive Mood, as :I. The First Conjugation ends in er:

as, aimer,

to love.
II. The Second


to finish. III. The Third

as, recevoir,

to receive. IV. The Fourth

re :

as, rendre, {

to render.

as, finir,

oir :


Aimer, to love.


I love.

nous aim-ons, tu aim-es, thou lovest.

vous aim-ez, il aim-e, he loves.

ils aim-ent,

they love.

we love. you love.

j'aim-ais, tu aim-ais, il aim-ait,

IMPERFECT TENSE (Imparfait). I was loving. nous aim-ions, thou wast loving. vous aim-iez, he was loving ils aim-aient,

we were loving. you were loving. they were loving

j'aim-ai, tu aim-as, il aim-a,

FR, P.

Past DEFINITE TENSE (Passé défini).
I loved.

nous aim-âmes, we loved.
thou lovedst. vous aim-âtes,
he loved.

ils aim-èrent,

they loved.


you loved.


j'aim-erai, I shall lore. nous aim-erons, we shall love.
tu aim-eras, thou wilt love. vous aim-erez,
il aim-era, he will love. ils aim-eront,

they will love.

you will love.

j'ai aim-é, tu as aim-é, il a aim-é,

Compound Tenses.

I have lored. nous avons aim-é, we have loved.
thou hast loved. vous avez aim-é, you have loved.
he has lored. ils ont aim-é,

they have loved.

PLUPERFECT TENSE (Plus-que-parfait). j'avais aim-é, I had loved. nous avions aim-é, we had loved. tu avais aim-é, thou hadst loved. vous aviez aim-é, you had loved. il avait aim-é, he had loved. ils avaient aim-é, they had loved.

PAST ANTERIOR TENSE (Passé antérieur). j'eus aim-é, I had loved. nous eûmes aim-é,we had loved. tu eus aim-é, thou hadst loved. vous eûtes aim-é, you had loved. il eut aim-é, he had loved. ils eurent aim-é, they had loved.

FUTURE ANTERIOR TENSE (Futur antérieur). j'aurai aim-é, I shall have loved. nous aurons we shall have tu auras aim-é, thou wilt have aim-é,

loved. loved.

vous aurez aim-é, you will have loved. il aura aim-é, he will have loved. ils auront aim-é, they will have


love thou.


let us love. aim-ez,


love ye.

j'aim-erais, tu aim-erais, il aim-erait,

CONDITIONAL MOOD (Conditionnel).

PRESENT TENSE (Présent). I should love. nous aim-erions, we should love. thou wouldst love. vous aim-eriez, you would love. he would love. ils aim-eraient, they would love,

PAST TENSE (Passe). j'aurais aim-é(or I should have nous aurions j'eusse aim-é,) loved.

aim-é, tu aurais aim-é, thou wouldst have vous auriez loved.

aim-é, il aurait aim-é, he would have ils auraient loved.


we should have

loved. you would have

loved. they would have




that I may love.

que nous aim.
that thou mayst ions,

que vous aim-iez, that you may love. that he may love. qu'ils aim-ent, that they may love.

que j'aim-e, que tu aim-es,

} that we may love.

qu'il aim-e,

IMPERFECT TENSE (Imparfait). que j'aim-asse, that I might love. que nous aim- that we might que tu aim-asses, that thou mightst assions,

love. love.

que vous aim- that you might" qu'il aim-ât, that he might assiez,

love. love. qu'ils aim-assent, that they might


PAST TENSE (Passe). que j'aie aim-é, that I may have que nous ayons that we may have loved.


loved. que tu aies aim-é, that thou mayst que vous ayez that you may have have loved. aim-é,

loved. qu'il ait aim-é, that he may have qu'ils aient that they may loved.


have loved...

PLUPERFECT TENSE (Plus-que-parfait). que j'eusse

that I might have que nous eussions that we might aim-é, loved.


have loved. que tu eusses

that thou mightst que vous eussiez that you might aim-é, have loved. aim-é,

have loved. qu'il eût aim-é, that he might have qu'ils eussent that they might loved.


have loved.


aim-er, to love.

| avoir aim-é, to have loved,

PARTICIPLES (Participes).


aim-é, e, loved.
ayant aim-é, having loved.



Finir, to finish.


I finish.

nous fin-issons, we finish.
thou finishest. vous fin-issez,

you finish. he finishes. ils fin-issent, they finish.

jo fin-is, tu fin-is, il fin-it,

jo fin-issais, tu fin-issais,

IMPERFECT TENSE (Imparfait). I was finishing. nous fin-issions, we were finishing. thou wast finish- vous fin-issiez, you were finishing. ing.

ils fin-issaient, they were finishhe was finishing.


il fin-issait,

jo fin-is, tu fin-is, il fin-it,

Past DEFINITE TENSE (Passé défini).

I finished. nous fin-îmes, we finished.
thou finishedst. vous fin-îtes, you finished.
he finished. ils fin-irent. they finished.

je An-irai, tu fn-iras, il fin-ira,

FUTURE TENSE (Futur). I shall finish. nous fin-irons, thou wilt finish. vous fin-irez, he will finish. ils fin-iront,

we shall finish. you will finish. they will finish.

Compound Tenses.
Past INDEFINITE TENSE (Passe indéfini).

I have finished. nous avons fin-i, we have finished.
thou hast finished. vous avez fin-i, you have finished.
he has finished. ils ont fin-i, they have finished.

j'ai fin-i, tu as fin-i, il a fin-i,

j'avais fin-i, tu avais fin-i,

PLUPERFECT TENSE (Plus-que-parfait).
I had finished. nous avions fin-i, we had finished.
thou hadst fi- vous aviez fin-i, you had

finished. nished.

ils avaient fin-i, they had finished. he had finished.

il avait fin-i,

j'eus fin-i, tu eus fin-i,

Past ANTERIOR TENSE (Passé antérieur).

I had finished. nous eûmes fin-i, we had finished. thou ħadst fi. vous eûtes fin-i, you had finished. nished.

ils eurent fin-i, they had finished. he had finished.

il eut fin-i,

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