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CONSONANTS. The Consonants not given below have the same, or nearly the same, sound as in English.

Examples. k before a, 0, u c has the sound of

capitale, a capital.

e, i, y ceci, this. With a cedilla (ç) it sounds like 88

reçu, received. d has the same sound as in English. At vend-il, does he sell? (pro

the end of words followed by a vowel, nounce, vent-il).
or h mute, it is sounded like t.

un grand homme, a great
man (pronounce, un grant-

homme). g is hard before a, o, u

gant, glove. soft e, i, y

agir, to act. h is usually silent, but is pronounced in a

few words, which must be learnt by

heart j is pronounced like jee

jour, day. i Double I1, preceded by i, are pronounced taille, shape (pronounced nearly as y

taiye). r in the middle of a word is sounded more parler, to speak.

strongly than in English s at the beginning of words has the same oser, to dare.

sound as in English, but between two

vowels it has the soft sound of % t has usually the same sound as in English, partiel, partial.

but it has the sound of s in many essentiel, essential.

words before i, followed by a, e, o nation, nation. x is sounded like ks in

réflexion, reflection. gz in

exercice, exercise. 88 in

Bruxelles, Brussels. z in

deuxième, second. Many Consonants at the end of words are not pronounced, as: plomb, lead. drap, cloth.

tout, all.
chaud, warm.
alors, then.

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Similar Sounds in English.

sounded like a in ah !

like ba in bacon, baker.

like sa in sage.

like da in date. é

like a in ale. effe

like the English f.

like ja, and articulated gé

like s in pleasure. ash

like ash in mash. i

like ee in sheep.

like jee, and articulated

like s in pleasure.
pronounced cah.

as in English.

as in English.

as in English.

as in English.
like pa in pace.

like the French u with

k before it.

like air.

as in English. té

like ta in table.

no similar sound. vé

like va in vapour. ixe

like eeks in leeks. i Grec

like ee in sheep. zède

as in English.


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JUNCTION OF WORDS. In reading French, when one word ends with a consonant, and the following word begins with a vowel, or silent h, the two words are pronounced together, as if they formed only one word. But this junction does not take place when there is a pause in the sentence. The t in the word et, and, is never pronounced with the following words. The final e, preceded by a consonant, is not pronounced when followed by a word beginning with a vowel : :

elle a =


EXERCISE IN READING. Les hommes, les

enfants, des arbres, nos amis, vos habits, nous avons, vous avez eu, ils ont, pas encore, avec un enfant, ses plus cruels ennemis.- Songez à vos affaires.-Mon oncle est arrivé. Il avait encore beaucoup à faire. Un homme et une femme. — Cet habit est à moi.- Les Anglais sont industrieux.Vous en avez eu assez.-La ville allait

être prise.



III.—THE ARTICLE (l’Article). There are three Articles, the DEFINITE (l'article défini), the INDEFINITE (l'article indéfini), and the PARTITIVE (l'article partitif). SINGULAR (Singulier).

PLURAL (Pluriel). Masculine (Masculin). Feminine (Féminin). Definite : le (1)

la (1)


1 Indefinite :

(no plural). l' is used instead of le, la, before a vowel or h mute.


le père,
the father.

les pères,

the fathers. la mère, the mother.

les mères, the mothers. l'ami,

the friend (masc.) les amis, the friends (masc.) (instead of le ami). l'amie,

the friend (fem.) les amies, the friends (fem.) (instead of la amie). l'homme, the man.


the men.
un père, a father.
une mère, a mother.
un ami, a male friend.
une amie, a female friend.
[The Partitive Article is given on p. 12.]

Present Tense of the Verb To have."

j'ai, I have.

nous avons,

we have.
tu as,
thou hast.

vous avez,
ila, he has.

ils ont
she has.

elles ont
et, and.

EXERCISE I. 1. J'ai la rose. 2. J'ai une rose. 3. Le père a la rose. 4. La mère a une rose. 5. Il a le jardin. 6. Le père a un jardin. 7. L'enfant a la pomme. 8. Un enfant a une pomme. 9. Le père a le livre. 10. L'enfant a un livre. 11. L'oncle a un cheval. 12. L'enfant a un oncle et une tante.

1. I have the book. 2. We have a father and a mother. 3. He has the rose.

4. We have a garden. 5. He has the apple. 6. The mother has a book. 7. The child has a book. 8. You have an uncle and an aunt. 9. We have a horse. 10. The aunt has a garden. 11. The child has a horse. 12. You have a garden. Present Tense of the Verb To have," used Interrogatively. Singular.

Plural. ai-je, have I ?


have we? as-tu, hast thou ?


have you? a-t-il, has he?


have they? a-t-elle, has she?



you have.
they have,




NOTE.—In Interrogative sentences, when the subject is a substantive, the noun is placed first, and the pronoun is also used after the verb, as :

L'enfant a-t-il? Has the child ? Lit. The child has he ?

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EXERCISE II. 1. Avez-vous un père et une mère ? 2. A-t--elle un oncle et une tante ? 3. A-t--il un ami ? 4. A-t-elle une amie ? 5. Ont-ils un jardin ? 6. Ai-je la rose ? 7. Avez-vous le livre ? Oui, j'ai le livre. 8. Avez-vous un livre ? Oui, j'ai un livre. 9. L'enfant a-t--il une rose ? Oui, l'enfant a une rose. 10. Le père a-t--il un chien ? Non, il a un cheval. 11. La tante a-t--elle un jardin ? Oui, elle a un jardin. 12. L'oncle a-t--il un habit? Oui, il a un habit.

1. Has he an uncle and an aunt? 2. Have they a father and a mother?

3. Have they (masculine) a friend (masc.)? 4. Have they (feminine) a friend (fem.)? 5. Has she the rose ? 6. Have I the book ? 7. Have you the rose ? Yes, I have the rose. 8. Have you a garden? Yes, I have a garden. 9. Has the child a coat? (say, The child, has he a coat ?) Yes, he has a coat. 10. Has the uncle a horse ? (say, The uncle, has he a horse ?) No, he has a dog. 11. Has the mother the book ? (say, The mother, has she the book ?) Yes, she has the book. 12. Has the father a horse ? (say, The father, has he a horse ?) Yes, he has a horse.


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IV.—THE SUBSTANTIVE (le Substantif). 1. FORMATION OF THE PLURAL (Formation du Pluriel).

GENERAL RULE (Règle générale).
The Plural is formed by adding s, which is not sounded.

le roi, the king.

les rois,

the kings. la pomme, the apple.

les pommes,

the apples. l'habit, the coat.

les habits, the coats. le jardin, the garden.

les jardins,

the gardens. l'enfant, the child.

les enfants,

the children. la fleur, the flower.

les fleurs, the flowers. la maison, the house. les maisons, the houses.

EXCEPTIONS. 1. Substantives ending in s, x, or z, remain unchanged in the Plural.

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le pays,

le fils, the son.

the country.
le bras, the arm.
la noix,

the nut.
the nose.


les fils,
les pays,
les bras,
les noix,
les nez,

the sons.
the countries.
the arms.
the nuts.
the noses.

le nez,

2. Substantives ending in -au or -eau, in -eu or .eu, take x in the Plural, instead of s.


le chapeau, the hat.

les chapeaux, the fire.

les feux, the vow, wish.

les veus,

le feu, le vou,

the hats. the fires. the vows, wishes.

Note.—The following seven words ending in -ou also take x in the Plural.

le bijou, the jewel.
le chou,

the cabbage.
le caillou, the pebble.
le genou,

the knee.
le hibou, the owl.

the louse.
le joujou, the plaything.

Plural. les bijoux,

the jewels. les choux,

the cabbages. les cailloux,

the pebbles. les genoux,

the knees. les hibous,

the owls.

the lice. les joujoux, the playthings.

le pour

les poux,

All the other words in -ou follow the general rule, and have the Plural in s:as, le clou, the nail.

les clous, the nails.

3. Substantives ending in -al or -ail change these letters into -aux in the Plural: as,


le cheval, the horse.
le général, the general.
l'animal, the animal.
le travail, the work.


les chevaux, the horses.
les généraux, the generals.
les animaux, the animals.
les travaux,

the works.

Obs. There are a few exceptions to this rule: as, le bal, the ball ; l'éventail, the fan; &c., which form the plural bals, éventails, &c.

4. The following are irregular: Singular.

Plural, le ciel, the heaven. les cieux, the heavens. l'oeil,

les yeux, le bétail, the cattle.

les bestiaux, the cattle.

the eye.

the eyes.

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