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that the young girl is not ill. 13. I was eating apples. 14. We are eating nuts. 15. I began to read. 16. The boy began to study. 17. The children pay for what (ce que) they buy. 18. The girls employ their time well.

B.

1. Qui a appelé? Ton père a appelé. 2. Avez-vous nettoyé les gants? Je nettoierai les gants ce soir. 3. Préférez-vous la vieillesse à la jeunesse? Je préfère la jeunesse à la vieillesse. 4. Nettoies-tu la chambre? Je nettoie toute la maison. 5. Avez-vous payé ces livres ? Mon père achète tous mes livres. 6. Combien coûtent-ils? Ils coûtent sept francs. 7. Trouvez-vous cela (that) cher? J'appelle cela (that) très-cher. 8. Que mangeais-tu? Je mangeais des noix. 9. Gèlera-t-il cette nuit? Il a déjà gelé. 10. Achèterez-vous du thé ou du café? Je n'aime pas le thé, j'achèterai du café.

1. Who has called? My mother has called. 2. Has he cleaned the gloves? He will clean the gloves this evening. 3. Who will clean the room? I will clean the room. 4. Does the girl clean the house? The girl cleans the whole house. 5. We prefer youth to old age. 6. Have you paid for this horse? My father pays for all my horses. 7. How much (combien) does the horse cost? It costs eight hundred francs. 8. Do you call that dear? I call that very dear. 9. What are you eating? We are eating grapes. 10. Will you buy wine or beer? I do not like wine, I will buy beer.

XVII.-EXERCISES ON THE SECOND CONJUGATION. NOTE 1.-Haïr, to hate, loses the Trema (i) in the singular of the Present and Imperative. In the Plural of these tenses, and in all other tenses, it keeps the Trema: as,

Prés. je hais, tu hais, il hait, nous haïssons, vous haïssez, ils haïssent. Impér. hais; pl. haïssons, haïssez.

Passe déf. je haïs, etc.

NOTE 2.-Obéir, to obey, is followed by à: as,

nous obéissons à nos parents, we obey our parents.

EXERCISE XXIII.

A.

1. Je finis mon thème. 2. Tu finis ta lettre. 3. Le pain nourrit les hommes. 4. Les bons enfants obéissent à leurs parents et à leurs maîtres. 5. Vous obéissez à vos parents. 6. Le maître punit les écoliers paresseux. 7. Hier il a puni Charles et Frédéric. 8. Remplis ce verre. 9. Je remplissais les bouteilles, quand (when) elles étaient vides. 10. Remplissez votre verre; il est vide. 11. Quand finira-t-on la leçon ? La leçon est finie. 12. Je finirais la

FR. P.

F

leçon, s'il était quatre heures. N'est-il pas encore quatre heures ? Non, il est quatre heures moins un quart. 13. Ne punissez pas ce petit garçon; il a été malade. 14. Pourquoi n'avez-vous pas rempli les bouteilles? Je n'ai pas eu assez de vin.

1. He finishes his letter. 2. She will finish her letter. 3. The good girl obeys her mother. 4. The good boy will obey his uncle and his aunt. 5. Obey your masters. 6. The master will punish the idle children. 7. Yesterday he punished the idle scholars. 8. Fill (pl.) these glasses. 9. We shall fill the glasses when (quand) they are (say will be) empty. 10. I have filled the bottles. 11. When will the children finish their lesson? The lesson is finished. 12. We would finish the lesson if it was seven o'clock. Is it not seven o'clock? No, it is ten minutes to seven. 13. I will not punish the little boys, they have been ill. 14. Why have you not punished the idle scholars? 15. One (on) will punish the idle children who (qui) do not obey their masters.

B.

1. Romulus et Rémus bâtirent la ville de Rome.

2. Notre voisin

bâtit une grande maison. 3. Nos voisins bâtissent de grandes maisons. 4. Je bâtirais aussi une maison, si j'avais plus d'argent. 5. Je hais le vice; j'aimerai toujours la vertu. 6. Haissez le vice. 7. J'ai toujours haï le vice. 8. Nous haïssons la flatterie. 9. On a saisi les voleurs. 10. Haïssez-vous le vice? Oui, je hais tous les vices.

1. Who built the city of Rome? Romulus and Remus. 2. My neighbour will build a beautiful house. 3. Our neighbours will build beautiful houses. 4. We would build also a house, if we had more money. 5. We hate vice, we love virtue. 6. Hate (sing.) vice: love (sing.) virtue. 7. We have always hated flattery. 8. The generals have seized the robbers. 9. When will the generals have seized the robbers?

XVIII.-EXERCISES ON THE THIRD CONJUGATION. There are very few regular Verbs of this conjugation; the principal are;

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1. Je reçois souvent des lettres de votre frère. 2. Recevez-vous aussi des lettres de votre père? 3. J'ai reçu des lettres de mon fils. 4. Combien dois-je ? 5. Le général conçut le projet d'attaquer les Romains. 6. La lune reçoit sa lumière du soleil. 7. La semaine passée je reçus une lettre de notre ami. 8. Ton frère doit de l'argent. 9. Tu dois obéir à la volonté de tes parents et de tes maîtres. 10. Les soldats ne reçoivent pas toujours leur solde. 11. J'aperçois l'homme que je cherche. 12. J'aperçois cette vérité.

2. The girls

1. We often receive letters from (de) your son. often receive letters from their brothers. 3. Have you often received letters from your uncle? 4. How much money do they owe? They owe five hundred francs. 5. The generals conceived the project of attacking (infin.) the English. 6. I shall receive six hundred francs from your brother. 7. Who will receive the money from your uncle? 8. Last year we received twelve letters from your friend. 9. The children ought to obey the wishes of their parents and of their masters. 10. The soldiers have not received their pay. 11. We perceive the children whom (que) we are looking for. 12. They perceive that truth.

XIX.

EXERCISES ON THE FOURTH CONJUGATION. With rien, nothing, use also the negative ne: as,

je n'entends rien, I hear or understand nothing.
répondre, to answer (a person, a letter, etc.), is followed by à.
EXERCISE XXV.

A.

1. Je vends ma maison. 2. Le marchand vend du sucre et du café. 3. Vous vendez votre cheval. 4. Ne vendrez-vous pas votre chien? Non, Monsieur, je ne vendrai pas mon chien. 5. Atendez un moment. 6. Nous avons attendu longtemps. 7. La femme vendait du beurre et du lait. 8. Qu'avez-vous répondu à votre maître? J'ai répondu que j'avais attendu une heure. 9. Tu perds ton crayon; tu as aussi perdu ta plume. 10. L'enfant n'a rien perdu. 11. Le cheval a perdu un œil. 12. Entendez-vous la musique? Non, je n'entends rien. 13. Cette nuit j'entendis un bruit dans la rue. 14. Ma mère aussi a entendu ce bruit.

1. We are selling our house. 2. The merchants sell beer and wine. 3. He will sell his dog. 4. Will you not sell your horses? 5. No, Sir, we will not sell our horses. 6. Wait (sing.) a moment. I have waited a long time. 7. The merchants sold sugar and coffee. 8. What have you sold? I have sold, Sir, butter and milk. 9. The boy answers his master. 10. I answered (pret. def.) that I was sick. 11. Whom (qui) do you wait for? I wait for my cousin from (de) London. 12. The children have lost nothing. 13. Yesterday we heard a noise in the street. 14. Have you heard the noise in the house? No, I have heard nothing.

The Verb battre, to beat, drops a t in the Singular of the Present Indicative and Imperative. Otherwise it is regular.

Prés. Je bats, tu bats, il bat, nous battons, vous battez, etc.
Impér. bats.

Part. passé, battu.

B.

1. Ne bats pas cet enfant. 2. Il bat son cheval. 3. Réponds à ton maître. 4. Ce tyran cruel a répandu beaucoup de sang innocent. 5. Guillaume a déjà perdu l'oeil gauche, il perdra aussi l'œil droit. 6. Tu perds ton argent. 7. Nous perdons tout notre temps. 8. Je perdis hier ma bourse. 9. Qui (who) défend cela (that)? 10. Qui a battu mon chien? 11. Qui a perdu cette bourse? Je crois (I believe) que Pierre a perdu sa bourse. 12. A-t-il aussi perdu de l'argent? Je crois qu'il a perdu un franc.

1. Do not beat (sing.) that girl. 2. She beats her dog. 3. Answer (pl.) your master. 4. This cruel tyrant will shed much (of) innocent blood. 5. These cruel tyrants have shed much innocent blood. 6. The dog has already lost its (say the) right eye, it will lose also its left eye. 7. Who will forbid that? 8. Have the boys beaten my dog? 9. Why (pourquoi) do you lose all your time? 10. Have you lost your purse? I believe that I have lost my purse.

XX. THE PRONOUN (le Pronom).

There are six classes of Pronouns, Personal, Demonstrative, Relative, Interrogative, Possessive, and Indefinite.

1. Personal Pronouns (Pronoms personnels).

There are two kinds of Personal Pronouns in French, the Conjunctive and Disjunctive. The Conjunctive are so called because they are always conjoined with a Verb; the Disjunctive because they are disjoined from a Verb.

A. CONJUNCTIVE PERSONAL PRONOUNS (Pronoms personnels

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conjonctifs).

1. The First Person.

Dat. me, to me.

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2. The Second Person.

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The indefinite Pronoun of the Third Person is Nom. on, Dat. se, Acc. se.

En is sometimes used for the genitive case of all the Personal Pronouns, of me, of thee; of him, of her, of it; of us, of you, of them.

Y is sometimes used for the dative case of all the Personal Pronouns to me, to thee, to him, to her, to it; to us, to

you, to them.

REMARKS.

1. The Nominative case always precedes the Verb, as in English, except in interrogations: as,

je parle, I speak.

tu parles, thou speakest, &c.

But in Interrogations the Nominative case follows the Verb, united by a hyphen: as,

parlé-je? do I speak?

parles-tu? dost thou speak? &c.

2. The Dative and Accusative cases are always placed

before the Verb, and not after it, as in English: as,

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3. In negative sentences the Dative and Accusative cases are always placed between ne

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and the Verb: as,

il ne me blâme he does not blame pas,

me.

je ne le vois pas, I do not see him. elle ne m'a pas she has not répondu, answered me.

4. In interrogative sentences the Dative and Accusative cases always precede the Verb: as,

me cherche-t-il? does he look for vous a-t-il ré- has he answered

les vend-on ?

me?
does one sell
them?

pondu?

you?

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