Images de page
PDF
ePub

B. 1. Ne bats pas cet enfant. 2. Il bat son cheval. 3. Réponds à ton maître. 4. Ce tyran cruel a répandu beaucoup de sang innocent. 5. Guillaume a déjà perdu l'œil gauche, il perdra aussi l'ail droit. 6. Tu perds ton argent. 7. Nous perdons tout notre temps. 8. Je perdis hier ma bourse. 9. Qui (who) défend cela (that)? 10. Qui a battu mon chien ? 11. Qui a perdu cette bourse ? Je crois (I believe) que Pierre a perdu sa bourse. 12. A-t-il aussi perdu de l'argent ? Je crois qu'il a perdu un franc.

1. Do not beat (sing.) that girl. 2. She beats her dog, 3. Answer (pl.) your master. 4. This cruel tyrant will shed much (of) innocent blood. 5. These cruel tyrants have shed much innocent blood. 6. The dog has already lost its (say the) right eye, it will lose also its left eye. 7. Who will forbid that? 8. Have the boys beaten my dog? 9. Why (pourquoi) do you lose all your time? 10. Have you lost your purse ? I believe that I have lost my purse.

XX.-THE PRONOUN (le Pronom). There are six classes of Pronouns, Personal, Demonstrative, Relative, Interrogative, Possessive, and Indefinite.

1. Personal Pronouns (Pronoms personnels). There are two kinds of Personal Pronouns in French, the Conjunctive and Disjunctive. The Conjunctive are so called because they are always conjoined with a Verb; the Disjunctive because they are disjoined from a Verb. A. CONJUNCTIVE PERSONAL Pronouns (Pronoms personnels

conjonctifs).

1. The First Person.
Singular.
Nom. je, I.

nous,
Dat. me, to me.

nous, Acc. me,

nous,
2. The Second Person.
Singular.

Plural.
Nom. tu, thou.

vous, ye, you.
Dat. te, to thee.

vous, Acc.

vous, you. 3. The Third Person.

Masculine.
Singular.

Plural.
Nom. il, he or it.

ils, they. Dat. lui, to him or it.

leur, to them. Aoc. le, him or it.

les, them.

Plural.

we.
to us.

me,

[ocr errors]

to you.

te, thee.

Feminine.
Singular.

Plural.
Nom. elle, she or it.

elles, they.
Dat. lui, to her or it.

leur, to them. Acc. la, her or it.

les, them. The indefinite Pronoun of the Third Person is Nom. on, Dat. se, Acc. se.

En is sometimes used for the genitive case of all the Personal Pronouns, of me, of thee; of him, of her, of it; of us, of you, of them.

Y is sometimes used for the dative case of all the Personal Pronouns: to me, to thee, to him, to her, to it; to us, to

you, to them.

REMARKS. 1. The Nominative case always precedes the Verb, as in English, except in interrogations: as,

je parle, I speak. tu parles, thou speakest, &c. But in Interrogations the Nominative case follows the Verb, united by a hyphen : as,

parlé-je ? do I speak ? parles-tu ? dost thou speak? &c. 2. The Dative and Accusative cases are always placed before the Verb, and not after it, as in English : as, je te donne, I give to thee. nous vous cher

er-} we look-for you. je lui donne,

}

chons, I give to him. je vous donne, I give to you. ils les cherchent, they look-for il nous cherche, he looks-for us.

them. Also in the Compound Tenses. je t'ai donné, I have given to

nous lui avons we have said to thee.

dit,

him. il m'a donné, he has given to elle m'a cherché, she has sought me.

on vous a cherché, one has sought you 3. In negative sentences the Dative and Accusative cases are always placed between ne and the Verb: as, je ne vous donne I do not give to il ne me blâme he does not blame pas, you.

pas, ils ne nous prêt- they do not lend je ne le vois pas, I do not see him.

elle ne m'a pas she has not

répondu, answered me. 4. In interrogative sentences the Dative and Accusative cases always precede the Verb: as, me cherche-t-il ? does he look for vous a-t-il ré- has he answered

me.

me.

ent pas,

to us.

pondu ?

you? les vend-on ? does one sell

them?

me ?

me?

| mangez-les, eat them.

With a negative in interrogative sentences ne always stands first: as, ne me donnes-tu dost thou not give ne vous a-t-il pas has he not pas ?

répondu ?

answered you? ne le cherchez- do you not seek

vous pas ? him?

5. There is an exception to the rule in the Imperative Mood of affirmative Verbs : as, donnez-moi, give to me.

, apportez-lui, iring to him. Moi and toi are used instead of me and te after the Verb.

6. But if there is a negative with the Imperative Mood, the words are in the same order as in Rule 4, namely, first, ne; secondly, the Pronoun; and lastly the Verb: as, ne me donnez pas, do not give to me.

ne les mangez :}

do not eat them. ne lui apportez do not bring to pas, pas,

him. 7. When there are two Pronouns, one in the Dative case and the other in the Accusative case, the Dative stands first, and the Accusative second, but both before the Verb: as, je to le donne, I give it to thee. il nous l'apporte, he brings it to us. Louis me la (les) Louis lends it on vous le dira, one will tell it to prête, (them) to me.

you. So in like manner with interrogatives and negatives : as, me le donnes-tu ? dost thou give it Louis ne me les Louis does not to me?

prête pas,

lend them to me. vous l'apporte- does he bring it to ne nous l'appor- will he not bring t-il?

tera-t-il pas ? it to us? nous les appor- will he bring them on ne vous le one will not say it tera-t-il ?

to us? 8. There is an exception to this rule with the Datives lui and leur, which are always placed after the Accusative of the Personal Pronoun: as, je le lui donne, I give it to him. nous ne la lui we do not give her je ne le lui donne I do not give it to

(it) to him. pas, him.

la (les) leur don- will she give her elle la (les) lui she gives her nera-t-elle ? (them) to them? donne, (them) to him.

elle ne la leur a she has not given elle ne la (les) lui she does not give

pas donnée,

her (it) to them. her (them) to him ne le lui donnez do not give him (it) la lui donne- does she give her pas,

to him, (to her). t-elle ? to him?

pourquoi ne la leur why do not you prêtez-vous pas? lend it to them?

[ocr errors]

you?

dira pas.

to you.

donnons pas,

donne pas.

9. With the affirmative Imperative the Accusative stands first, and the Dative second: as, donnez-le-moi, give it to me. prêtez-la-nous, lend it to us. apportez-les-lui bring them to him (leur),

(them). 10. With the negative Imperative both Pronouns stand before the Verb, according to Rule 6; but lui and leur stand after the Accusative, according to Rule 8: as: ne me le donnez do not give it to

.

ne le lui ap- do not bring it to pas,

portez pas,

him,

me.

EXERCISE XXVI.

A.

1. Charles le cherche. 2. Notre père nous donne des leçons de géographie. 3. On vous cherche. 4. On vous a cherché. 5. Qui (who) a mangé mon pain ? Henri l'a mangé. 6. Où est Louise ? Elle n'est pas ici, mais je l'attends. 7. Donnez-moi votre canne. Non, je la garderai. 8. Apportez-moi de l'eau fraîche ; j'ai soif. 9. Pardonnez-moi. 10. Aimes-tu ton père ? Oui, je l'aime. 11. Cherchez-vous votre canne ? Oui, je la cherche; je l'ai perdue. 12. Le bottier apporte-t-il mes bottes ? Oui, il les apporte.

1. I am looking for you. 2. Her father gives her lessons in (de) geography. 3. One looks for him. 4. One has looked for them. 5. Who has eaten my butter? William has eaten it. 6. Where is Henry? He is not here, but I expect him. 7. Give us our hats. No, I will keep them. 8. Give us some fresh water. We are thirsty (say, we have thirst). 9. Do the children love their mother? Yes, they love her. 10. Bring me some wine. 11. Is he looking for his cane ? Yes, he is looking for it, he has lost it. 12. Has the boot-maker brought me my boots ? Yes, he has brought them.

B.

4. Ne me

1. M'attendez-vous ? Oui, je vous attends. 2. Qui m'a cherché; Votre frère vous a cherché. 3. Vous a-t-il répondu ? Non, il ne m'a pas répondu; mais j'espère qu'il me répondra bientôt. donnez pas tant de pommes ; je ne les mangerai pas. 5. Si vous ne les mangez pas aujourd'hui, vous les mangerez demain. 6. Où est votre thème ?_L'avez-vous fait ? Non, je ne l'ai pas fait, il est trop difficile. 7. Vendrez-vous vos moutons ? Non, je ne les vendrai pas; je les garderai. 8. Où sont mes livres ? Le relieur les a-t-il apportés ? Non, il ne les a pas apportés. Il les apportera demain.

1. Does he expect me? Yes, he expects yoni. 2. Who has looked for her ? Her sister has looked for her. 3. Has she replied to him ? No, she has not replied to him, but I hope she will reply to him very soon. 4. Give me some apples. 5. Do not give us so many pears. We will not eat them. 6. If we do not eat them to-day, we shall eat them to-morrow. 7. Will he sell his sheep? No, he will not sell them, he will keep them. 8. Where are my boots ? Has the boot-maker brought them? No, he has not brought them; he will bring them to-morrow.

C.

1. Si vous avez mon livre, donnez-le-moi. 2. Je vous le donnerai. 3. Je ne vous le donnerai pas. 4. Donne-le-lui. 5. Tu ne dis pas la vérité. Je la dis. 6. Je vous la dis. 7. Avez-vous appris (say heard) la nouvelle ? Oui, je la sais; Charles me l'a dite. 8. Ditesla-moi. 9. Dites-la-lui aussi. 10. Avez-vous ma plume? Oui, je l'ai; je vous l'apporterai tout de suite. 11. Apportez-moi aussi ma règle. Je ne l'ai pas ; je vous l'ai déjà donnée. 12. Apportez-la-lui. 13. Ne la lui apportez pas. 14. Pardonnez-moi cette faute. Je vous la pardonno. 15. Je ne vous la pardonne pas. 16. Voici une plume, voulez-vous me la tailler ? Oui, je vous la taillerai.

1. If you have my hat give it to him. 2. Do not give it to him. 3. We will give it to you. 4. We will not give it to you. 5. We will give it to her. 6. We will not give it to her. 7. You (plural) do not tell the truth. We tell it. 8. We tell it to you. 9. We do not tell it to you. 10. We tell it to him. 11. We do not tell it to them. 12. Bring me my pen. I will bring it to you immediately. 13. Bring it to her. 14. I will not bring it to her. I have already given it to her. 15. Have you given the horse to my brother ? No, I have not given it to him. 16. I have not given it to you.

B. DISJUNCTIVE PERSONAL PRONOUNS (Pronoms personnels

disjonctifs).

Singular.

1.

2.

3.

[blocks in formation]

Disjunctive Pronouns are used with the reflective word même, self:

1. moi-même, myself. nous-mêmes, ourselves.
2. toi-même, thyself. vous-mêmes, yourselves (vous-même,

when speaking of a single person).
(lui-même, himself. eux-mêmes, themselves.
3. elle-même, herself. elles-mêmes, themselves.

(soi-même, one's self.

« PrécédentContinuer »