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III. THE ARTICLE (l'Article).

There are three Articles, the DEFINITE (l'article défini), the INDEFINITE (l'article indéfini), and the PARTITIVE (l'article partitif).


SINGULAR (Singulier).

Masculine (Masculin). Feminine (Féminin).

PLURAL (Pluriel).


(no plural).


le (1)


la (l')


l' is used instead of le, la, before a vowel or h mute.

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[The Partitive Article is given on p. 12.]

Present Tense of the Verb "To have."

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1. J'ai la rose.

mère a une rose.

3. Le père a la rose.

4. La

2. J'ai une rose.
5. Il a le jardin. 6. Le père a un jardin.

7. L'enfant a la pomme. 8. Un enfant a une pomme. 9. Le père
a le livre. 10. L'enfant a un livre. 11. L'oncle a un cheval.
12. L'enfant a un oncle et une tante.

1. I have the book. 2. We have a father and a mother. 3. He has the rose. 4. We have a garden. 5. He has the apple. 6. The mother has a book. 7. The child has a book. 8. You have an uncle and an aunt. 9. We have a horse. 10. The aunt has a garden. 11. The child has a horse. 12. You have a garden.

Present Tense of the Verb "To have," used Interrogatively.

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NOTE.-In Interrogative sentences, when the subject is a substantive, the noun is placed first, and the pronoun is also used after the verb, as :

L'enfant a-t-il? Has the child? Lit. The child has he?

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oncle et une

5. Ont-ils un Oui, j'ai le

1. Avez-vous un père et une mère? 2. A-t-elle un tante? 3. A-t-il un ami? 4. A-t-elle une amie? jardin? 6. Ai-je la rose? 7. Avez-vous le livre? livre. 8. Avez-vous un livre? Oui, j'ai un livre. 9. L'enfant a-t-il une rose? Oui, l'enfant a une rose. 10. Le père a-t-il un chien? Non, il a un cheval.. 11. La tante a-t-elle un jardin ? Oui, elle a un jardin. 12. L'oncle a-t-il un habit? un habit.

Oui, il a

1. Has he an uncle and an aunt? 2. Have they a father and a mother? 3. Have they (masculine) a friend (masc.)? 4. Have they (feminine) a friend (fem.)? 5. Has she the rose? 6. Have I the book? 7. Have you the rose? Yes, I have the rose. 8. Have you a garden? Yes, I have a garden. 9. Has the child a coat? (say, The child, has he a coat?) Yes, he has a coat. 10. Has the uncle a horse? (say, The uncle, has he a horse ?) No, he has a dog. 11. Has the mother the book? (say, The mother, has she the book?) Yes, she has the book. 12. Has the father a horse? (say, The father, has he a horse?) Yes, he has a horse.

IV.—THE SUBSTANTIVE (le Substantif).

1. FORMATION OF THE PLURAL (Formation du Pluriel). GENERAL RULE (Règle générale).

The Plural is formed by adding s, which is not sounded.

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1. Substantives ending in s, x, or z, remain unchanged

in the Plural.

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2. Substantives ending in -au or -eau, in -eu or -œu, take x in the Plural, instead of s.

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NOTE. The following seven words ending in -ou also

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All the other words in -ou follow the general rule, and have the Plural in s : as,

le clou, the nail.

les clous, the nails.

3. Substantives ending in -al or -ail change these letters into -aux in the Plural: as,

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Obs. There are a few exceptions to this rule: as, le bal, the ball; l'éventail, the fan; &c., which form the plural bals, éventails, &c.

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5. Many Substantives are used only in the Plural.


les environs, the neighbourhood.
les funérailles, the funeral.

6. Some words have a different meaning in the Singular and Plural.

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On the General Rule and Exception 1.

1. Nous avons deux chiens. 2. Vous avez trois chats. 3. Ils ont les lettres. 4. Les fils ont les lettres. 5. Ont-elles une fleur? Elles ont deux fleurs. 6. Avez-vous vu les palais? Oui, j'ai vu les palais. 7. L'enfant a-t-il une rose? L'enfant a deux roses. 8. Les enfants ont-ils une pomme? Les enfants ont trois pommes. 9. L'homme a deux bras. 10. L'oncle a deux jardins. 11. Le père a-t-il un chien? Oui, il a trois chiens. 12. La mère a-telle un canif? Oui, elle a trois canifs.

1. He has three cats. 2. She has three dogs. 3. You have the letter. 4. The children have the letters. 5. The son has two dogs. 6. The sons have three dogs. 7. Have you seen the flowers? Yes, I have seen the flowers. 8. Have the children seen the palaces? The children have seen the palaces. 9. Have the sons seen the palaces? The sons have seen three palaces. 10. Have you seen the gardens ? Yes, I have seen three gardens. 11. Have you a pen-knife? Yes, I have two pen-knives. 12. Has the father a cat? Yes, he has two cats and three dogs.

quatre, four; cinq, five; aussi, also.


1. La reine a les bijoux. 2. Le général a trois chevaux. 3. Avezvous vu les deux généraux ? 4. Les enfants ont les cailloux. 5. Ont-ils aussi les joujoux? Oui, ils ont aussi les joujoux. 6. J'ai trois noix, quatre pommes et cinq cerises. 7. L'homme a deux^ yeux. 8. Avez-vous vu les feux? Oui, j'ai vu les feux. 9. Avezvous vu les funérailles? 10. J'ai vu les palais et les châteaux. 11. L'oncle a quatre chevaux. 12. Avez-vous vu les lunettes? Oui, j'ai vu les lunettes.

1. The aunt has the jewels. 2. The uncle has five horses. 3. The two generals have four horses. 4. Have you seen the spectacles? 5. Have the children the nuts? Yes, they have four nuts and five apples. 6. Have you seen the hats? 7. The queen has three


palaces and four country houses. 8. Have the children seen the fires? 9. Have you seen the playthings? Yes, I have seen the playthings. 10. The child has two eyes. 11. Has the queen the jewels? 12. I have seen the funeral.


1. Ai-je les couteaux? Oui, j'ai les couteaux. 2. As-tu vu les chameaux? Oui, j'ai vu les chameaux et les chevaux.* 3. Avezvous aussi vu les châteaux ? J'ai vu les châteaux et les palais. 4. Avez-vous les bijoux? La tante a les bijoux et les coraux. 5. Les enfants ont-ils les habits ou les chapeaux? Les enfants^ ont les^habits^et les chapeaux. 6. Ont-ils vu les feux? Oui, ils ont vu les feux. 7. Là tante a-t-elle les joujoux? Non, les enfants ont les joujoux. 8. Avez-vous les tableaux? Oui, j'ai les tableaux.

1. Has he the knives? Yes, he has the knives. 2. Has the child seen the camels? Yes, he has seen the camels. 3. Have the children seen also the country houses? Yes, they have seen the country houses and the palaces. 4. Have you also seen the corals? Yes, I have seen the corals and the jewels. 5. Have they also the hats? Yes, they have the hats and the coats. 6. Have the children seen the fires? Yes, they have seen the fires. 7. Have you the playthings? No, the child has the playthings. 8. Has the uncle seen the pictures? Yes, he has seen the pictures.


The preposition of is expressed in French by de, which is thus used before the articles.

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Du, a contraction of de le, is used before a consonant; de l' before a vowel, and h mute.

Des is a contraction of

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* The final x is sounded like z when followed by a word beginning with a vowel.

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