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It is you.

Examples. de moi, of or from me; de toi, de lui, à moi, &c. Especially after c'est, ce sont, c'était: as, c'est moi, It is I.

c'est nous,

It is we. c'est toi, It is thou.

c'est vous, c'est lui, It is he.

ce sont eux,

It is they. c'est elle, It is her.

ce sont elles,

It is they.

Interrogative : est-ce moi ? is it I ?

| est-ce vous ? is it you ?

Negative : ce n'est pas moi, it is not I. ce ne sont pas eux, it is not them. ce n'est pas vous, it is not you.

EXERCISE XXVII.

A.

nous.

nous.

1. Je parle de lui et de son frère. 2. Parles-tu de moi ? Oui, je parle de toi. 3. Pensez-vous à moi? Non, je ne pense pas

à

vous; je pense à Charles. 4. Qui est là ? C'est moi. 5. Est-ce toi, Louis ? Oui, c'est moi. 6. Est-ce vous, mes sæurs ? Oui, c'est

7. Qui a cassé ma canne ? Ce n'est pas moi. 8. Nous parlous de vous, et vous parlez de nous. 9. Votre oncle demeuret-il encore chez vous ? Non, Monsieur il ne demeure plus chez

10. Venez chez moi demain matin. 11. Je joue avec lui. 12. Pour qui est cette tasse de café ? Elle est pour moi.

1. We speak of him and of his sister. 2. They speak of me and of my brothers. 3. Does she speak of me? Yes, she speaks of you. 4. Does she think of me? She thinks of thee. She thinks of ihem. 5. I have not thought of thee. 6. Who is there? It is I. It is he. 7. It is not you. 8. Who has broken the cup? It is not I. 9. I speak of him, she speaks of me. 10. Does my aunt still dwell with (chez) you ? No, Sir, she no longer dwells with us. 11. For whom is that glass of beer? It is for myself. * 12. For whom is that glass of wine? It is for thyself.

B.

1. Qui vient (comes) là ? C'est nous. 2. Pensez-vous à vos amis ? Je pense souvent à eux. 3. Pour qui sont ces bottes ? Elles sont pour moi. 4. À qui pensez-vous ? Je pense à vous et à votre mère. 5. De qui parle-t-on ? On parle d'eux. 6. Qui a apporté cette corbeille ? Ma seur elle-même. 7. Qui a écrit cette lettre ? Mon père lui-même. 8. Qui a battu cet enfant ? Ce n'est pas moi, c'est Léopold.

1. Does she think of her friends (fem.)? She often thinks of them. 2. Of whom do you think? I often think of you and of your father. 3. Of whom does she think? She often thinks of me and of my sisters. 4. Of whom does she speak? She often speaks of thee and of thy cousins (fem.). 5. For whom are those shoes ? They are for ourselves. 6. Who has brought that basket? My brother himself. 7. Who has brought those boots ? The boot-maker himself. 8. Who has written that letter? My brother himselfmy sister herself. 9. Who has written these letters ? Our brothers themselves-our sisters themselves.

Masc.

Fem.

2. Demonstrative Pronouns (Pronoms démonstratifs).
Masc.

Fem.
Sing. celui,

celle, this, that.
Plur. ceux,

celles,

these, those. For the Demonstrative Adjective, see p. 39. 1. Ci and là are joined to the Pronouns by a hyphen to give greater emphasis : Sing. celui-ci,

celle-ci, this (here), this. Plur. ceux-ci,

celles-ci, these (here), these. Sing. celui-là,

celle-là, that (there), that, yonder. Plur. ceux-là,

celles-là, those (there), those, yonder. mon chapeau et celui de mon frère, my hat and that of my brother. ma soeur et celle de mon cousin, my sister and that of my cousin. més chapeaux et ceux de mon frère, my hats and those of my brother. mes scurs et celles de mon cousin, my sisters and those of my cousin.

-là, voulez-vous celui-ci ou celui-là ? do you wish this or that ?

I prefer these to those (speaking of

feminine nouns). 2. Ce, indeclinable, is used before the Verb être, to be, to point out a person or thing (see p. 73); as,

ce n'est pas moi, it is not I.

ce n'est pas vrai, it is not true. 3. Ceci, this, cela, that, both indeclinable, refer to a noun understood : as,

ceci est bon, et cela est mauvais, this is good, and that is bad.
que dites-vous de cela ?

what do you say of that ?

je parle de celui-ci, vous parlez } I speak of this, you speak of that. je préfère celles-ci à celles-là, }

4. En is sometimes used for the genitive, and y for the dative of ce, ceci, cela (see also p. 69). They must be placed before the Verb, like the Personal Pronouns, except in the affirmative Imperative (see Rules, pp. 69, 70). Ifen is used with a Personal Pronoun, it always stands after it: as, voici du jambon : en voulez-vous ? here is ham ; do you wish (some)ofit? oui, donnez-m'en,

yes, give me (some) of it. je lui en ai donné,

I have given (some) of it to him.

of it.

.

j'en prendrai volontiers un petit I will take willingly a small piece

morceau, votre père est-il au jardin ? Oui, Is your father in the garden? Yes, il y est,

he is there. y allez-vous ?

are you going to that place (there) ? non, je n'y vais pas,

no, I am not going there.

EXERCISE XXVIII. 1. Voici mon crayon et celui de Guillaume. 2. Voilà mes gants et ceux de ma soeur. 3. J'ai vu votre portrait et celui de Louise. 4. On a trouvé votre parapluie et celui d'Henri sous le grand arbre. 5. Celui-là est neuf; celui-ci est vieux. 6. Nos enfants et ceux de votre voisin sont au jardin. 7. Ceci est pour mon cousin, cela est pour ma cousine. 8. Mon papier est meilleur que celui de Charles. 9. Voici du gâteau de cerises, en voulez-vous ? 10. Donnez m'en un petit morceau, je vous prie. 11. Votre oncle est-il au jardin ? Je. crois qu'il y est. 12. Pensez-vous à vos affaires ? Oui, j'y pense.

1. Here is (voici) my umbrella and that of Henry. 2. There are (voilà) my boots and those of my brother. 3. There are my pencils and those of William. 4. We have seen his portrait and that of Louisa. 5. We have found his hat and that of William under the great tree. 6. Our daughters and those of our cousin are in the garden. 7. These (here) (masc.) are new; those (there) (masc.) are old. 8. These (here) (fem.) are new; those (there) (fem.) are old. 9. My umbrella is better than that of Henry. 10. Here are (voici) apples; do you wish (some) of them? Give me (some) of them, I pray you. 11. Here is ham (du jambon), do you wish some of it? Give me a small piece of it, I pray you. 12. Are my sisters in the garden ? I believe (je crois) that they are there.

Masc.

3. Relative Pronouns (Pronoms relatifs). 1. Nom. qui, who, which, that. Acc. que, whom, which, that, Gen. dont, whose, of whom, of which.

Fem. 2. Sing. lequel, laquelle,

} who, whom, or which. Plur. lesquels, lesquelles,

The article le, la, les, with quel, when preceded by de or à, follows the rules of the article, as :duquel, de laquelle, desquels, desquelles, of or from whom or which. auquel, à laquelle, auxquels, auxquelles, to whom or which.

3. quoi, which, what. 1. Qui, que, dont, are used for both genders and numbers, and apply to persons and things, as : l'enfant qui pleure,

the child which weeps. les enfants qui pleurent,

the children which weep. la porte qui est ouverte,

the gate which is open. le voyageur que j'ai quitté,

the traveller whom I left.

}

you speak

le chapeau que j'ai achete

the hat which I have bought. les maisons que vous avex vues, the houses which you have seen. l'homme les hommes dont rous

the manthe men of la fimmt les femmes,

purler.

the woman- the women ) whom la lettre les lettres

the letter the letters of which 2. With prepositions, qui is used only of persons ; lequel, laquelle, of animals and things, as :c'est un homme si qui j'ai parlé, it is a man to whom I spoke. c'est une odeusion à laquelle jo ne it is an opportunity of which I did pensuis puis

not think le negociant aveo qui j'ai voyage, the merchant with whom I travelled. l'arbre sur lequel je mentai, the tree upon which I climbed. la cket aveo laquelle on ouvrit la the key rrith uchich one opened the porte,

gate. 3. Lequel, laquelle, is used only of persons, when there is ambiguity, as Ia tante de mon ami laquelle de- the aunt of my friend who dwells at meure à l'aris,

Paris. (qui might refer to my friend.) 4. Celui qui is he scho, celui que, he whom. Nom. ce qui, that which, schat. Aec ce que, that which, what. Nom. tout ce qui; Acc. tout ce que, all which, all that, everything which, everything that, as :celui qui me voit,

he erho sees me. celui quo jo pois,

he arhom I see. ce qui nous plait,

that which pleases us. ce que je vois

orhat I see. j'aime tout ce qui est benu, I love everything which is beautiful.

6. Quoi refors to a proposition, and is used only with propositions, or after voilà followed by de, pour, etc., as :voilà do quoi jo me plains, this is what I complain of.

EXERCISE XXIX. 1. Voici l'homme qui a apporté la lettre. 2. Où est la femme qui vend des cerises? 3. Louise a perdu lo ruban que vous lui avez donné. 4. Voici le ruban que Mademoiselle Louise a perdu. 5. Voici l'écolier à qui vous avez prêté votre livre. 6. Est-ce là la maison que vous avez achetée? 7. Oui, Monsieur, ce l'est; comment la trouvezvous? Jo la trouve tros-belle. 8. Où est la lettre que vous avez reçue co matin? Jo l'ai donnéo à ma tante. 9. La chambre dans laquelle je travaille, est très-froide. 10. Je connais la femme dont vous avez reçu cette lettre. 11. Jo connais l'homme dont vous parlez. 12. Voici tout ce qu'il a désiré.

1. Here are (voici) the men who have brought letters. 2. Where are the women who sell cherries and npples? 3. The girl has lost the unbrella which her uncle gave her. 4. Here is (voici) the umbrella which the girl lost. 5. Where are the children to whom I lent my books ? 6. Is this the garden which you have bought ? 7. Yes, Sir, this is it; how do you find (like) it? I find it very beautiful. 8. Where is the letter which my mother received this morning? I gave it to your father. 9. The rooms in which she works are very cold. 10. I know the woman of whom you speak, 11. I know tắe men of whom you speak. 12. Here is (voici) everything which

you desired.

4. Interrogative Pronouns (Pronoms interrogatifs).

1. qui (Nom. Acc.) who? whom?
que, quoi, what?

Fem.
2. Sing. lequel, laquelle.

Pl. lesquels, lesquelles.

Masc.

For the Interrogative Adjective, see p. 39.
1. Qui is used only of persons: as,
qui est là,

who is there?
qui cherchez-vous ? whom do you look for ?
de qui parlez-vous ? of whom do you speak ?
à qui donnez-vous cela ? to whom do you give that?

2. Que and quoi are used only of things. Que stands alone, and is used only before Verbs; quoi is often used with a Preposition: as, que voulez-vous ?

what do you want?

what does one say?
de quoi parlez-vous ? of what do you speak ?
sur quoi ?

on what?

que dit-on ?

NOTE.—Instead of qui and que, a longer form is frequently used :

qui est-ce qui Nom. = qui ? who ?
qui est-ce que} Acc. : qui? whom?
qu'est-ce que ?

que ? what.

Examples.
qui est-ce qui vient là ? who comes there?
qui est-ce que vous cherchez? whom you do seek ?

qu'est-ce que vous voulez ? what do you want ? 3. Lequel, laquelle, refers generally to a preceding substantive, or to a following substantive: in the latter case

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